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构词法

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构词法内容摘要: WordFormation CONTENTS1词缀法( Affixation )2复合法( Compounding )3转化法( Conversion )4缩略法( Shortening )5逆生法( Backformation )6拟声法( Onomatopoeia ) 1词 缀 法(Affixation) 1词缀法 (Affixation)英语构词法中在词根前面加前缀( prefixes )或在词根后面加后缀( suffixes ),从而构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词的方法叫作词缀法,也叫派生法( Derivation )。 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀 前缀( Prefixation )除少数英语前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,不改变词性;英语后缀一般改变词类,而不引起词义的变化。 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀 The classification ofprefixesIn some reference books, prefixes (and suffixes) areclassified according to their source, but this does notseem to help from a practical point of view. It seemsmore helpful to classify the most important productiveprefixes by their meaning into the following tencategories: 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀1) Negative prefixesa-/an-amoral, asexual, atheism( 无神论的) , anarchy (无政府状态 )dis-dishonest, discontent, discover, disobey, disagreein-incomplete, inconsistent, incorrect, invulnerable, illogical, illegal, impolite,immoral, imbalance, irrational, irregularnon-nonviolent, non-cooperation, nonautomatic, nonadjustable, nonalcoholicun-uninformative, unexpected, unease( 不舒适,不自在) , unrest (不宁,动乱) 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀1) Negative prefixes••••••••••OrderLiterateSymmetry( 对称)GovernmentalRelevantProductiveBelievableVulnerableRelatedMature••••••••••DisorderIlliterateAsymmetryNongovernmentalIrrelevantUnproductiveUnbelievableInvulnerableUnrelatedImmature 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀2) Reversative (反向的)de-defrost, deregulation, degeneration (堕落 , 退化) deformed (变形的) , denationalize (开除…的国籍)un-undo (解开,消 除) , unpack, untie, unwrap,unmaskdis-disconnect, dishearten, disinterested 1/ 前缀词缀法 (Affixation)2) Reversative (反向的)•••••••CentralizeforestInfectZipComposeCountPopulate•••••••DecentralizeDeforestDisinfect ( 杀死细菌)Unzip (拉开拉链)DecomposeDiscountDepopulate 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀3) Pejorative( 贬低的) prefixesmis-misguide, misapplication, misbehavior, misforturemal-maltreatment, malfunction( 故障) , malformationpseudo-pseudonym( 假名) , pseudoscience, pseudo-friend 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀4) Prefixes of degree or sizehyper-hyperactive, hypercritical, hyperaggressive, hypercautiousultra( 超,极端)ultramodern, ultrasecret, ultraclean, ultrasonic( 超音速的) , ultraconservative ,ultranationalism (极端民族主义)mini-minibus, minicamera, miniskirtout-outdo( 超越) , outgrown, outliveover-overwork, overestimate, overemphasize, overabundance, overburdenunder-underdeveloped, underpopulation, undergraduatesuper-supermarket, superpower, superstarsub-subadult, subtitle, subbreed (亚品种) , subatom , subway, subgroup 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀4) Prefixes of degree or size•••••••••Computerleft / rightConsciousNaturalSensitiveSimpleNumberestimateculture•••••••••MinicomputerUltra-left / ultra-rightSubconsciousSupernaturalHypersensitive/ultrasensitiveOversimpleOutnumberUnderestimateSubculture 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀5) Prefixes of orientation andattitudeco-co-author, co-prosperity, cooperationcounter-counterclockwise, counterclaim( 反诉) , counterattack,counterculture, countermeasureanti-anti-abortion, anti-art, antiwar, antibacterial, antisocial,anticancer, antibodypro(亲,赞成)pro-American, pro-revolutionary, pro-Fascism , proslavery 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀6) Locative prefixesfore-forearm, foreleg, forehead, foreword, forefathersinter-international, intergovernmental, intertwine, interdisciplinary,intercollegetrans-transatlantic, transoceanic, transplant, transmit, transport,transfertele-telephone, telegram, telecommunication, television 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀6) Locative prefixes••••••••ViewConferenceContinentaldeckCastPacificFormFront••••••••InterviewTeleconferenceIntercontinentalForedeckTelecastTranspacificTransformForefront 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀7) Prefixes of time andorderex-ex-husband, ex-president, ex-colony, ex-convict( 罪犯)fore-foresee, foretell, forefather, forewarn , forecastpre-premature, prewar, prehistoric, prepay, premarital (婚前的)post-post-election, postwar, postgraduate, postdoctoral 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀8) Number prefixesuni-/mono-unilateral, unicell, unicircuit, unicolor, unicycle, unidimensional,uniform, unipolar, monoxide, monocrystal, monogamy, monologuebi-/di-bicycle, bilingual, bimonthly, dioxide (二氧化物) , dialogue,tri-triangular, triatomic, trimonthly, trilateral, trilingualmulti-/poly-multipurpose, multipolar, multiangular (多角的) , multilingual,polyatomic, polycrystal (多晶体)semi-semicircle, semiliterate, semivowel, semiannual, semicolony,semiautomatic 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀8) Number prefixesquadriquadricycle quadrisection quadruple( 四倍)pentapentagon pentathlonhexahexahedron ( 六正面体)Heptaoctheptathlonoctosyllable (八音节的) octagon( 八角形)EnnedecaenneagonDecade decathlon 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀8) Number prefixes• Lingual• Lateral• Polar• Dimensional• Unilingual,bilingual,trilingual,multilingual• Unilateral,bilateral,trilateral,multilateral• Unipolar, bipolar,tripolar,multipolar 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀9) Conversion prefixesa-aloud, asleep, aglow, awash (被浪潮冲打的)be-belittle, bestir, befriend, bewitch( 施魔力于,使着迷)en-endanger, enforce, enable, embody, empower 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀10) Miscellaneous( 混杂的) prefixesextra-extralinguistic, extraordinary, extraterrestrial (地球外的)neo-neo-classicism, neo-colonialism, neo-fascism, neolithic (新石器时代的)Pan-pan-Pacific, pan-American( 泛美的)…………….. 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 前缀 后缀( Suffixation )给单词加后缀也是英语构词的一种重要方法。后缀通常会改变单词的词性,构成意义相近的其他词性;少数后缀还会改变词义,变为与原来词义相反的新词。 1/ 后缀词缀法 (Affixation) The classification ofsuffixesSince suffixes mainly change the word class, we shallgroup suffixes on a grammatical basis into 1) noun suffixes 2) adjective suffixes 3) adverb suffixes 4) verb suffixes 1/ 后缀词缀法 (Affixation)1) Noun suffixesNoun suffixes may be subdivided into the following fivekinds. Denominal (由名词转换的) nouns (concrete orabstract) Deverbal nouns De-adjectival nouns Noun and adjective suffixes 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 后缀1) Noun suffixesDenominal nouns (concrete)-eerengineer, mountaineer, profiteer (投机商) , racketeer (诈骗者)-erLondoner, teenager, villager-essactress, waitress, stewardess( 女服务员) , hostess, lioness-letbooklet, leaflet, piglet, starlet 1词缀法 (Affixation)/ 后缀1) Noun suffixesDenominal nouns (abstract)-agebaggage, luggage, percentage-domkingdom, stardom( 明星界 )-ery/-rydrudgery (苦工) , slavery, nursery-ismoptimism, individualism, tourism-shipscholarship, friendship-ocras

WordFormation构词法
CONTENTS词缀法(Afxation)1复合法(Compounding)2转化法(Con
词缀法1(Afxation)构词法
英语构词法中在词根前面加前缀(prefxes)或在词根后面加后缀(s
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