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构词法(用root-stem-base部分)

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构词法(用root-stem-base部分)内容摘要: Chapter 3( 构词法 )3.1 General Remark 概述3.2 Compounding 复合构词法3.3 Derivation 派生构词法3.3.1 Prefixation 加前缀3.3.2 Suffixation 加后缀3.4 Conversion 词类转换法 The differences between “root”,“stem” and “base”?Root/ 词根 : is not further analyzable, either in terms of derivational orinflectional morphologyStem/ 词干 : the part of the word-form which remains when all inflectional affixes have been removed.Base/ 词基 : any form to which affixes of any kind can be added. undesirables= un + desire + able + sBase:desirable→ desire (base)undesirable→ desirable (base)undesirables→ undesirable (base)Base/ 词基 : any form to which affixes of any kind can be added. 2) denationalizeddenationalized = de + nation + al + ize + d Root:nation Stem:denationalize Base:national→ nationnationalize→ nationaldenationalize→ nationalizedenationalized→ denationalize desirable: desire(root or base, not stem)undesirable: desirable(base, not root, not stem)undesirables: undesirable(stem or base, not root)desired: desire(root, stem or base) 3.2 Compounding 复合构词法Questions: 1. What is compounding? 2. What are the relative criteria ofa compound? 3. The classification ofcompounding? What is compounding?Compounding / composition: a wordformation process consisting of joiningtwo or more bases to form a new unit.e.g.flowerpot= flower + potmachine-independent= machine + independentback The relative criteria of acompound1. Orthographic criterion:Compounds are written in three ways, that is,solid, hyphenated and open.E.g. flowerpotSolid: flowerpotHyphenated: flower-potOpen: flower pot 2. Phonological criterion:Compound accent: a main stress on the first elementand secondary stress on the second element.Normal phrase accent: a secondary stress on thefirst element and the main stress on the secondelement.E.g.black listblackboardblue bottle 3. Semantic criterion:Semantically, compounds can be saidto have a meaning which may berelated to but cannot always be inferredfrom the meaning of its componentparts.E.g. E.g. flowerpot workday backyardNote: we caninfer themeaning fromthe meaningof itscomponentpartsred tape( 官样文章,烦琐拖沓的公事程序) dog days( the hottest day of the year) flatfoot(a policeman) blue blood(the quality of being a nobleman by birth) blue ribbon(an honor given to the winnerof the first prize)Note: we cannot infer the meaning from the meaning of its component partsback The classification ofcompounding?b. Syntactic relationCompounds areclassified according  subject and verb 主谓关系to parts of speech ofthe compounds and  verb and adverbial 动宾关系subdivided by the verb and adverbial 谓syntactic relation of状关系the compounding restrictive relation 限element.制关系a. Parts of speech coordinating relationsh 1. n. compoundsip 并列关系 2. adj. compounds…… 3. v. compounds thunder-struck (houses)houses are struck by thunder /thunder struck the houseswell-behaved (person)The person behave himself well.peace loving peoplepeople love peacean ocean-going (ship)A ship go across ocean. Apart from caring for her children, she has to take on such heavy _____ house work as carrying water and firewood.A. time-consumedB. timely-consumedC. time-consumingD. timely-consuming答案: C 风蚀岩石weather-beaten rocks日晒的健康肤色suntanned (skin)吹毛求疵的人a fault-finding person破纪录的速度a record-breaking speed免税的tax-free无忧无虑的care-free防火的fire-proof隔音的sound-proof滴水不漏的water-tight密封的,不漏气的air-tight没膝深的knee-deep齐肩高的shoulder-high终身的lifelong晶莹剔透的Crycle-clear苦乐参半的bittersweet谈论的话题talked-about topic杜撰的故事made-up story24 小时看守round-the-clock watch作现场勘查make an on the sop inspection 3.3 Derivation 派生构词法Questions: 1. What is derivation? 2. What is combining form? Andwhat difference between acombining form and an affix? 3. The classification of derivation.back Derivation / affixation: a process of formingnew words by the addition of a wordelement, such as a prefix, suffix orcombining form, to an already existingword.e.g.recover= re + coverworker= work + erback A combining form[ 构词成分 ]: a bound morpheme, which was originally a full word in Latin or Greek, butwhich now occurs only in derivatives.e.g. autobiographyhydromechanics television autobiographyauto- = autos (Gk) = selfself + life + writeautoalarmautocracy(auto + alarm)(auto + cracy)(self + to + weapon)(self + ruling ) hydromechanicshydro- = hydòr (Gk) = waterhydro-airplane hydrography dehydrate hydrogen televisiontele- = tele (Gk) = far offtelecontrol telephone Combining forms are distinguished from affixes by their ability to occur as one constituent ofa word whose only other constituent is an affix.e.g. autocracy hydrography telephoneautocracy = auto [ 构词成分 ] + cracy (suffix)hydrography = hydro [ 构词成分 ] + graphy (suffix)telephone = tele [ 构词成分 ] + phone (suffix) From the point of view of derivation, no distinction should be made between combining forms and affixes in this book, in which all the combining forms are labeled either as prefixes or suffixes.back 3.3.1 PrefixationQuestion: 1. What is prefixation? 2. The classification of prefixes 3. Some productive prefixesPrefixation: adding a prefix or combining form to the base.do not generally alter the word-class of the base Classification of prefixes:1. negative prefixes (反意前缀) : un-, non-, in-(im-, il-, ir-), dis-, a 2. reversative / privative prefixes (相反动作前缀) : un-,de-, dis-, 3. pejorative prefixes (贬义前缀) : mis-, mal-, pseudo 4. prefixes of degree or size (等级与大小前缀) : arch-, super-, out-, sub-, over-, under-, hyper-, altra-, mini 5. prefixes of attitude (态度取向前缀) : co-, counter-, anti-, pro 6. locative prefixes (方位前缀) : super-, sub-, inter-, trans 7. prefixes of time and order (时间顺序前缀) : for-, pre, post-, ex-, re 8. number prefixes (常用数字前缀) : uni-/mono-, bi-/di-,tri, multi-/poly 9. miscellaneous prefixes: auto-, neo-, pan-, proto-, semi-, viceback Some Greek Prefixes 2. aster-, astr-, astro1. ant- / antiAnti-Japanese War抗日战争抗体antibody ant- / anti-: against非正统艺术anti-art非传统英雄anti-hero ant- / anti-: unlike traditionastronaut aster-, astr-, astro-: star占星家astrologer小行星asteroid3. aut-, autoautobiography aut-, auto-: self独裁者autocrat自治权autonomy 4. bio bio-: life生物学biology传记biography5. chron-, chrono chron-, chrono: time编年史chronicle在时间上一致synchronize时代错误anachronism6. dem-, demodem-, demo-: people民主政治的democratic流行的epidemic7. derm-, dermato derm-, dermato: skin真皮dermis表皮epidermis皮下的hypodermic 8. geo地质学geology geo-: earth几何学geometry9. gen-, genea gen-, genea-: race家系,谱系genealogy起源,发生genesis庞杂的,异类的heterogeneousheteromorphy[ 生 ] 异态性heteronomy他治,不自治heterosexual10. meter-, metr meter-, metr-: measure计时器chronometer体温计thermometer十进制metrication11. onym-, onomatro onym-, onomatro-: word匿名的anonymous笔名,假名pseudonym同义词synonym受支配词hyponym 12. orthoortho-: correctorthography正字法正统的o

Chapter 3(构词法)3.1General Remark概述3.2Compounding复合
The diferences between “root”, “stem” and “base”?Roo
undesirables = un + desire + able + sBase: desirable → de
2) denationalizeddenationalized = de + nation + al + ize + d
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