高考英语3500词汇表_(超级有用)内容摘要: 高考英语词汇解析 A1.●abandon v. 放弃，遗弃，抛弃 abandon the baby/ child/ friend abandon the plan/ idea/ effort/ hope abandon oneself to 陷入，沉湎于 He abandoned himself to despair.2. ◎ability n. 能力； 才能 the ability to walk 行走的能力 to the best of one’s ability 竭尽全力 He completed the job to the best of his ability.3.●abnormal adj.不正常的，畸形的，反常的 They thought his behavior was abnormal. 反义词：normal4. ◎aboard prep. adv.在船（飞机，火车）上，上船(飞机，轮船) all the people aboard 机上的人5. about prep 关于，ad 大约，到处 a) be about to do sth…(when) I was about to go out when it began to rain. b) look about/around/round c) How/What about…询问情况或建议6 . above prep 在…上面 above all 首先;尤其7. abroad ad.到(在)国外 a) go /study /live abroad b) at home and abroad 在国内外8. ●absence n. 不在，缺席 absence from work/ school The decision was made in my absence. in the absence of 在缺少…条件下 The case was dismissed in the absence of proof.9. ◎absent adj. 缺席的，不在的 be absent from absent-minded adj. 心不在焉的10. ◎absorb vt. 1) 吸收，吸进（液体，气体等） 2) 理解，掌握 absorb ink/ water/ neat/ light/ oxygen/ sound/ energy absorb information/ knowledge be absorbed in 专注于，聚精会神于…11.●abuse v / n. 滥用，谩骂 abuse alcohol/ drugs 酗酒 /嗜毒 abuse power/ position/ privilege 滥用权力/职权/特权12. accept vt. accept the gift /invitation /plan accept sb/sth as…13.●access n.方法，通路，机会 The only access to the farm was a narrow bridge. Only high officials have access to the emperor. We students have access to the school library. accessible adj. 可进入的，可接近的，可使用的 Such information is not easily accessible to the public.14. accident n.事故，意外的事 1 by accident/chance 偶然，无意中；不小心15. ●accompany v. 陪伴，伴随，伴奏 accompany sb. to the school/ supermarket accompany the singer on / at the piano Lightening usually accompanies thunder. 16. ●accomplish v. 完成，到达，实现 accomplishment n. 成就，成绩 accomplish the task/ purpose/ goal17. according to 根据 According to the law, he should be sentenced to death.18. ◎accuse vt. 指控，指责 accuse sb of (doing ) sth 控告…19.● accustomed adj. 习惯的，适应的，惯常的 be/ get/ become accustomed to doing He was soon accustomed to getting up early.20. ache vi./n headache / toothache My back aches so much.21. achieve vt 达到；取得 achievement n 成就 achieve success/victory/one’s goal;22.◎achievement n. 成就，业绩；完成（任务等） make great achievements23.●acknowledge v. 承认，致谢 It is generally acknowledged that global warming is caused by greenhouse gases. Yaoming is acknowledged as/ to be the best player in China. I acknowledged financial support from the local government.24. across prep cross v. I walked across the street.; cross a street; come/run across 碰到25. act n.法令，条例 vt.表演，扮演，行动，做事 act as 充当；扮演 act out 把…表演出来26. action n. 行动 take action to do sth put sth into action 把…付诸实施27. active adj. 积极的;主动的 take an active part in /be active in 积极参加28.◎activity n. 活动 outdoor activities 户外运动29.actual a.实际的 actually adv. in (actual) fact 实际上30●adapt vi. 适应，适合，改编 vt. 使适应 adapt to change /the city life adapt oneself to the new surroundings adapt the novel for a film adaptation n. 适应31. add vt 添加，增加，补充说（that） add(…)to 添加 add up 把…加在一起 add up to 总计为; 总数为 a) His illness added to our trouble. b) He added that he would come again. c) Please add these figures up. d) These numbers add up to 100. e) He added some salt to the water.32. address n.地址 vt.写地址；向…讲话（尤指演讲） address the letter to sb. 给某人寄信 The letter was wrongly addressed. The president addressed the public. 2 33.●adjust vt. 调整，调节，适应 adjust your speed /the volume/ the camera adjust to the dark/ the single life adjust yourself to the student life adjustment n. 调整，调节34. admire v 钦佩.;羡慕 admire sb for sth I admire John for his courage. 35. admit vt （admitted ,admitted） 1) 承认 admit one’s mistakes; admit doing/having done He admitted having stolen the money. 2) 准许（入场，入学，入会） admit sb to /into→sb be admitted to He has been admitted to Beijing University.36.●adopt v. 收养，采用，采纳 adopt a child the adopted son/ daughter adopt a new policy/ a suggestion/ a plan/ an attitude37. advance vi 推进，促进；前进 adj. advanced 先进的/ 高级的 in advance 预先，事先 an advanced worker38. advantage n. 优点，好处(可数名词) 反：disadvantage take advantage of 利用 have an advantage over 优于… to sb’s advantage 对（某人）有利39. ◎advertise vt. 为…做广告 1）为…做广告 advertise a product / things 2）登广告征求/寻找… advertise for a new sales manager40. advice n/u. advise vt. 忠告,劝告,建议 take/follow/ accept one’s advice 接受某人的建议 ask sb for advice 向某人寻求建议 a piece of advice 一条建议 give sb some advice on sth advise sb (not) to do; advise doing; advise that …(should)+do Our teacher advised that we should study hard.41. ●affect vt. 影响, 深深打动，使悲伤等 Smoking affects health. People were deeply affected by the death of Jin Zhengri.42. afford vt. 负担得起,抽得出(时间); 提供 can/could/be able to afford sth/to do sth I can’t afford a book/to buy the book43. afraid a. 害怕的；担心 be afraid to do 因为害怕不敢做…; be afraid of doing 害怕… She was afraid to go out alone at night. She was afraid of waking him up.44. against prep 对着，反对, 靠着，迎着，衬着 stand against the wall (靠墙站着) go against nature; be against sth 反对 They are strongly against the plan. The pine tree were black against the morning sky. 345. age n.年龄；时代 vi. 变老 for ages 多年; at an early age; at the age of … ;of the same age=of an age After his wife’s death he aged quickly.46. agree vi. 同意；应允 1）agree with ① agree with sb / what you say/your opinion. ②表示一致;“ (食物、天气、工作等)对…适宜”： The weather does not agree with me. 这种天气对我不适宜。 A verb must agree with its subject in person and number. What he does does not agree with what he says. 他言行不一致。 2）agree to the plan/ the arrangement/ the suggestion . 3）agree on /upon 主要指双/多方通过协商而取得一致意见或达成协议： We agreed on the price. 我们就价格达成了一致意见。 Both sides agreed on these terms. 双方都同意这些条件。 4) agree to do sth He agreed to go with us. 他同意同我们去。 5) reach/arrive at/come to an agreement 6) I can’t/couldn’t agree more.47. ahead ad. 在前，向前 ahead of time 提前 go ahead 前进，干吧，说吧48.◎aid n. 援助；救护；辅助工具 first aid 急救 in aid of 支持 by ( the) aid of 借助于，通过…的帮助 come/ go to one’s aid 帮助某人 v. 帮助，促进 aid (sb/ sth) in/ with ( doing) sth 帮助某人做… 49. aim at ① 瞄准,对准 He aimed the gun at the enemy officer. ② (向某方面)努力 She's aiming at ( trying to win) a scholarship. ③ 针对某人 My words were not aimed at you. 50.◎alike adj. 相像，十分相似 We are alike in many ways. adv. 相似的，相同的 They tried to treat their children alike. 51. alive a. 活着的，存在的 catch …alive 活捉 keep…alive be alive with= be full of The lake was alive with fish. Who is the greatest man alive.(后置定语) 52. allow v 准许，允许 allow doing/ sb to do allow for 把 考虑进去 Has everything been allowed for in your plan? 53. almost adv 几乎，差不多 Almost no one/nobody came to the party. There was almost no snow that winter. 54. alone adj/adv 单独的 孤独的 1) 形容词 She is alone at home. （她独自一人在家。） 2) 副词 I like to work alone. （我喜欢独自一人工作。） 4 3) “只有，仅仅”， The shoes alone cost $200. ※ let /leave sb /sth alone 别打扰 let alone 更不用说 ★ lonely 1) 定语， “孤单的，无伴侣的，无人烟的，荒凉的，偏僻的” a lonely man / island. 2) 表语，“孤寂的，寂寞的” feel lonely ※ He lives alone but he doesn’t feel lonely.55. aloud ad.大声地 read aloud/ think aloud56. ◎amaze vt. 使惊奇，惊叹；震惊 What amazes me is how long she managed to hide it from us. It amazed me that he could be so calm at such a time. amazed adj. 惊奇的，惊讶的 amazing adj.令人惊奇的，惊叹的；震惊的 I’ m ___ that you have never heard of the Rolling Stones. It’s ____ how often you see drivers using mobile phones.57. ◎ amount n. 数额（尤指数量，大小等） a large amount of +u/n large amounts of +u/n v. （数量，意义等） 等同，相当于 amount to 1) （数量上）达到，总计 Time lost through illness amounts to 1,357 working days.因疾病而损失的时间总共为 2）等于，意味着 Ultimately, their ideas amount to the same thing. 归根结底，他们想的都是一回事。58. ● amuse vt. 使快乐，逗乐 amuse sb. 使…高兴 The funny drawings amused the kids. be amused by/at/ with 被…逗乐 amuse oneself 自娱自乐 The boys amused themselves by drawing. amusement n. to one’s amusement59. ◎amusement n. 1) 娱乐,乐趣 to one’s amusement 让某人发笑 They were dancing and singing in the car, much to the amusement of passers-by. 他们在车里跳舞，唱歌，让路人感到十分有趣。 2) 娱乐活动，消遣活动 amusements amuse vt. amuse sb/ oneself 使开心，逗笑 amused / amusing adj. an amused smile / look/ expression 愉快的微笑/ 神情/ 表情 an amusing story/ film 有趣的，好笑的，逗人发笑的故事/ 电影60. angry adj 生气的，愤怒的 (angrily /angrier ) be angry at (about) 因为…而生气 be angry with sb 生某人的气61. announce vt. 宣布，宣告，公布 announce a decision / plan/ intention announce sth to sb announce that At the end of the meeting , it was announced that an agreement had been reached. make an announcement 62.◎announcement n. 通告，通知 5 63.◎annoy vt. （使）烦恼 be annoyed with sb.for (at) sth. What annoyed him most was that he had received no apology. annoyed adj. 略感烦恼（生气）的 annoying adj. 讨厌的，令人烦恼的 It’s _____that we didn’t know about this before.令人恼火的事，我们事先并不知道这一切 Mr Davies was ____that the books were missing.戴维斯先生生气了，因为那些书不见了。64. answer n. the answer to the question v. answer a question/the door/the phone； answer for 对… 负责 You will have to answer for your wrong doing one day.65. ◎anxiety n. 忧虑，焦急，担心 anxious adj. 焦虑的，不安的；担心的 be anxious about sth for sb 渴望的，急切的 be anxious to do sth67. ◎apologize n. 道歉，歉意 apology n. make an apology/ apologies to sb for sth apologise to sb for sth68. ●appeal v. n. 吸引，呼吁，恳求 The design has appealed to people of all ages. I appeal to you to protect the environment. have/ hold appeal for sb. 对某人有吸引力 lose one’s appeal 失去吸引力69. appear 1) vi. 出现，露面 The man suddenly ______ from behind the tree scared me. 2) 系动词 似乎，好像 appear+ (to be) + n/adj 似乎 It appears (to sb) that /as if He appeared to be happy in the news. It appears to me that he will win It appears that all the files have been deleted.档案好像都已经被删除了。 Police say there appear to be signs of a break-in.警方称似乎有破门而入的迹象。70. ◎appearance n. 出现，露面；容貌 judge by appearances 以貌取人71.◎application n.申请 make an application for72. apply v. 申请 apply for 申请；请求，接洽 apply sth to …运用，应用 apply oneself to 致力于，集中精力做某事73. ●appoint vt. 任命，委派，安排，确定 1) 任命，委派 A committee was appointed to consider the plan. 一个委员会被指定去研究这些计划。 He was appointed as chairman. 2). 约定，确定 Everyone got there at the appointed time. In the evening he made his way to the appointed meeting place.74. appointment n. make an appointment 约定、会 his appointment as president 他担任总统的任命75. ◎appreciate vt. 欣赏；感激 appreciate your concern appreciate doing sth appreciate your abilities/ fine works of art I’d appreciate it if you let me get on with my job. 6 76. ◎approach 1). v. 接近；靠近；走进 As they approached the wood, a rabbit ran out of the trees. I find him difficult to approach. The winter vacation is approaching. 2). n. 接近；方法；途径；通路 He decided to adopt a different approach and teach the Bible through story-telling. His approach to the problem are wrong. All the approach to the palace were guarded by troops.77. ●approve vi. 赞成 vt. 同意，批准 approve of 赞成，同意 approve of one’s idea He doesn’t approve of my leaving this year. approve the plan/ proposal 通过计划/ 提议 approval n.79. argue vi. 争辩，争论 n. argument 1) argue for /against 赞成/反对 2) argue sb into/out of doing sth 说服某人做/不做某事 3) argue with sb about sth 与某人争论某事80. ◎arise arose arisen vi. 1) 出现，发生，产生 A new crisis has arisen. 新危机出现。 2）起床，起身，起立 He arose at dawn. 他黎明即起。81.◎argument n. 1)争论，辩论 have an argument with sb about / over sth 2) 论点，论据 a powerful argument against smoking argue v. argue with sb about / over sth82. arm n. 手臂,支架 武器（复） arm in arm 手挽手 take up arms 拿起武器 vt. 以…装备,武装起来 arm…with…Armed with the new equipment, the explorers entered the cave. be armed to the teeth 全副武装83. around 在周围; 在附近; 大约 around the corner 在拐角处，即将到来 around the clock 昼夜不停地84.◎arrange vt. 安排，布置 arrange an appointment 安排预约 Have you arranged to meet Mark this weekend? We had arranged that I would go for the weekend.我们商量好了，这个周末我去。 He arrived as arranged. 他如约而至。 The company will arrange for a taxi to meet you at the airport. Dave arranged for someone to drive him home. arrangement n. 安排，布置 make arrangements for…85.◎arrest vt. 逮捕，拘捕 He got arrested for careless driving. n. put / place sb under arrest 逮捕某人86. arrive v arrival n. 到来；达到 arrive at Guests receive dinner on/upon their arrival87. article n. 文章；东西；物品；冠词 an article of clothing 一件衣服88. ashamed adj 惭愧，害臊 789. asleep adj 睡着的，熟睡 (表语形容词) fall asleep 入睡 He seems to be fast asleep.90. ●assist v. 帮助，协助 assist sb. in dong /with sth. we’ll assist you in finding a place to live. She employed a woman to assist her with the housework. assistance n. technical/ military assistance 技术/军事援助91. ●assume v. 假定，假设 It is assumed that…普遍认为 I had assumed him to be a teacher. 我本以为他是老师。 He assumed an air of concern. 他装出关心的样子。 assuming （that）… 假设，假如92. assumption n. a) be ashamed of 以为是耻辱 b) be ashamed of oneself for 为…而害羞 c) feel ashamed for sb 替某人感到羞愧 ※ ashamed & shameful ashamed 指事物使人感到羞耻、惭愧、害臊； shameful 指事物或本身可耻不道德。 He is ashamed of his shameful conduct.93. astonish v 使惊讶 astonished /astonishing be/look astonished at 对…感到大吃一惊 an astonished look94. attach attach …to95. attempt v. 试图，尝试 attempt to do He was charged with attempting to kill his wife. attempt sth The plane crashed while attempting an emergency landing. n. make an attempt to do /at doing 试图做某事96. attend v. 看护，照料，服侍；出席，参加 attend a meeting/ school/ church/ the concert attend to sth 处理，注意 I have a few other things to attend to. attend to sb 看护 attend to a baby97. attention n. 注意，关心 pay ( much/no/little) attention to draw one’s attention to fix one’s attention/mind/eyes on； attract one’s attention98. attract v. 吸引，引起 Like attracts like 物以类聚99. available100. average adj 平均的；普通的 n. 平均数 on (the)average 按平均 I was just an average sort of student. 我只是一个普通学生。101. avoid doing102. awake v. 唤醒；(awoke/ awoken) Is he awake or asleep? awake to sth 意识到 醒悟到It took her some time to awake to the dangers of her situation. adj 醒着的 be wide awake103. award n. v. 8104. aware be aware of105. away adv 离开；远离 keep away from 保持距离； far away 在远处 right away 立刻，马上； give away 泄露，赠送106. awful 近 2000 页 16 位高考状元笔记免费拿 B1. back adv.回（原处）;向后 adj.后面的 n. 背后，后部；背 back and forth 来回，往返； back to back 背靠背 behind one’s back 背后； look back 回顾 put back 放回去； turn one’s back on 避开，不理睬2. ◎backward adv. backward and forward 来来回回 9 bend /lean over backward to do 竭尽全力去做…3. baggage n.行李 a piece of/an article of baggage4. ◎balance 1) n. ① 平衡 keep a balance (between A and B) lose one’s balance disturb the balance of one’s mind ② 余额 (常用单数） check your bank balance ③ 欠款（常用单数）The balance of 500 yuan must be paid within 90 days. 短语 be/ hang in the balance 不明朗的，未定的， 悬而未决的 catch / throw sb. off balance 使…失去平衡； 使…不知所措 on balance 总的来说 2）v．①保持平衡 ~（sth）on sth balance on one leg He balanced the cup on her knee. ②同等重视 balance A with/ and B balance home life with career ③比较权衡 balance A against B balance the cost against its benefit balanced adj. be on a balanced diet5. ●ban n.禁令 v. 禁止，取缔 a ban on smoking 禁烟令 place… under ban 对…加以禁止 ban sb. from sth./ doing 禁止某人做6. ◎bar 1) n. 条，块 a bar of chocolate / soap 障碍 Being a woman was a bar to promotion. 2) vt. 封堵 All the doors and windows were barred. 阻止 bar sb. from ... bar players from drinking7. bargain n. （经讨价还价之后）成交的商品；廉价货 Those shoes are a real bargain at such a low price.v. 讨价还价 bargain with sb about /over sth8. base n. 根据地，基地 v.以...为基地, 把基地设在 1) base sth on/upon sth 以…为基础 His book is based on a true story. 2) be based in 以...为基地,把基地设在 The toy company is based in Guangzhou. basic adj 基本的 basic knowledge/skills basically adv.9. ◎basis (复数 bases ) 1）基础，要素 form the basis of… 2) 基准，原则 on a regular /permanent basis 以定期的/永久的方式 3) 原因，缘由 on the basis of… Some videos were banned on the basis of violence.10. bath n.洗澡;浴室;澡盆; have/take a bath bathe v. 洗澡,游泳 be bathed in …沉浸在,沐浴着（光线） bathroom n.浴室11. bear (bore, born/borne) v. 1）承受 (重量) The ice is too thin to bear your weight. 2) 负担, 承担 bear the cost/ burden/responsibility 3）忍受;容忍 （常用于疑问句、否定句，与 can, could 连用） bear to do/doing 4) bear…in mind 记住12. beat v (beat ,beaten) 连续有节奏的敲击 My heart is beating faster than usual. Waves are beating the shore. 击败: He beat me in the game. ※ beat & hit &strike & knock13. before It will be +段时间+before+ do/does…要过多久才… 10 It was +段时间+before+ did…没过多久就…14. beg 乞求，请求 beg—begged—begged—begging beg sb. to do 请求、乞求某人做某事 I beg your pardon. 对不起、请原谅（降调） 请再讲一遍（降调）15. begin—began—begun—beginning begin with=start with 以…开始 to begin with=to start with (插入语)首先、第一 I don’t like living here. To begin with, the room is far too small.16. beginning n.开始，开端 at the beginning of… in the beginning= at first17. ◎behave v. 表现 He behaved as if nothing had happened. behave badly/well/like a true gentleman behave oneself 表现得体，有礼貌 well / badly behaved children18. ◎ behavior n. 不可数 good/ bad behavior be on your best behavior 尽量表现得体19. behind drop/ fall behind 落后 leave sb./sth. behind 遗落、忘带20. ◎belief n. （不可数） 1）相信，信心 belief in I admire his belief in what he is doing. 2) 看法，信念 （不可数） He acted in the belief that he was doing good. There is a general belief that things will soon get better. 3) 信仰 （可数 beliefs） religious/ political beliefs 短语 beyond belief 难以置信 to the best of one’s belief 尽其所知21. believe believe it or not (插入语)信不信由你 It is believed that he is a good teacher. =He is believed to be a good teacher.22. belong belong to 属于（无被动） The house belonging to her is under repair.23. bend v. 弯曲、弯腰、伏案 bend—bent—bent She was bent over her desk writing a letter. 她正伏案写信。24. ◎benefit 1) n. 优势，益处（不可数）She didn’t get much benefit from her staying abroad. 短语: be of benefit to...=be beneficial to ... to one’s benefit 对某人有利 for one’s benefit = for the benefit of sb. 为了帮助.../为了某人的利益 2） vt./ vi. benefit sb./ sth benefit from/ by... beneficial adj. 有益的，有用的 be beneficial to ...25. best do/ try one’s best to do 尽全力做 make the best of…尽量利用 all the best （书信结语）一切顺利、万事如意26. better had better do…最好做… 否定：had better not do be better worth reading 更值得读 be better known 更著名的27. beyond 超出、超过 beyond one’s imagination/description 难以想象/描述 beyond one’s power 超出能力范围 beyond my wildest dreams 做梦也没想到28. ●bid –bid- bid- bidding v. 出价，投标 n 投标 bid for sth. I bid 2000 dollars for the painting. 我出价 20000 美元买这幅画。 The highest bid for the picture was 20000. 这幅画的最高出价是两万29. birth n.出生、诞生 at birth 出生时 give birth to 生下、孕育了 1130. biscuit 饼干 c/n some chocolate biscuits31. bit 1) a bit of+不可数 n.= a little +不可数 n. He can speak a bit of French. 2) a bit/a little +比较级 a bit more slowly 3) not a bit=not at all 一点儿也不、毫不32. blame 1）be to blame 应该受到责备（主动表被动） 2) blame sb. for doing→sb. be blamed for …33.◎blank 1) n. 空白处，空格 fill in the blanks (记忆中的)空白,遗忘 My mind was a blank and I couldn’t remember her name. 2) adj. 空白的，无装饰的，无图画的 a blank form/ wall 不理解的，没表情的,空虚的 a blank expression Suddenly my mind went blank.34. be blind to 对…视而不见、熟视无睹 =turn a blind eye to35. blow v. (blew blown) 吹、刮 blow down 吹倒 blow up 爆炸、炸毁 n. 打击 give sb. a blow 给某人打击36. board n. 木板、布告牌 v. 登上 on board 在船（车、飞机） board a train 上火车37. book c/n 书 v. 预定（车、船）票 book a room/ ticket38. ◎bored adj. be bored with... / to death. boring adj. a boring job /book/man39. ◎bother vt./vi. 1) 花费时间精力做某事（常用于否定句，疑问句中） ① bother with/ about sth ---Shall I wait? ---No, don’t bother. It’s not worth bothering with an umbrella. ② bother to do He didn’t even bother to let me know he was coming. ③ bother doing Why bother asking if you are not really interested? 2) 给...造成麻烦，痛苦 使...烦恼，担忧 ① bother sb with/ about... I don’t want to bother her with my problems. ---I’m sorry he was rude to you. --- It doesn’t bother me. ② bother sb. that... Does it bother you that she earns more than you? ③ bother sb. to do... It bothers me to think of her alone at home. 3) 打扰 插话 bother sb Sorry to bother you, but... be bothered about sb./ sth 认为...重要 关心... I’m not bothered about what he thinks. n. 麻烦 困难（不可数） ---Thanks for your help. --- it was no bother. put sb. to bother get sb. /oneself into bother 给某人添麻烦40. bottom at the bottom of… from the bottom of one’s heart41. break—broke –broken break out （战争、火灾、疾病等）爆发 break down （车、机器等）坏掉、出故障；分解； （身体）垮掉； break in 打断；闯入 break up 破碎；（关系）破裂 break away from 摆脱、脱离42. breath n. hold one’s breath take a deep breath out of breath breathe v.43. bring bring up bring down bring about bring in44. broken adj. speak in broken English a broken marriage45. ◎budget n. within / over budget 在预算内/超出预算 on a (tight) budget 缺少钱 拮据 12 vt. ~ sth for ... 将...编入预算 ~$1,000,000 for education spending vi. ~ for 存钱 编预算 ~ for a holiday abroad46. build—built—built v. 建筑；建造 build up 增进、增强47. burn—burned—burned/--burnt—burnt 燃烧；晒黑、伤 burn down 烧毁 burn…to the ground= completely destroyed 夷为平地 get burnt 被晒伤 a burning candle 燃烧的蜡烛48. burst v. 突然发生 burst—burst—burst burst out laughing/ crying = burst into laughter/ tears 突然大笑起来/痛哭起来49. bury v. 埋葬 bury—buried—buried—burying bury one’s face in the hands 手捂着脸 bury oneself in… = be buried in…50. business n. 生意；职责；（本分）工作 on business do business with sb. Business is business. It’s none of your business. 与你无关。 mind your own business 管好你自己的事51. busy adj. 忙的；忙碌的 be busy with sth. be busy (in) doing 忙于做 busily adv52. but conj.但是 prep.除了 not…but… 不是…而是 we have no choice but to wait. 除了等待别无选择。 We can do nothing but wait. 除了等待什么也不能做。 but for 要不是、若没有（引导含虚拟语气的句子）But for your help, I would have failed.53. by by bus/car/plane/air/train/ship… 乘汽车/小汽车/飞机/火车/船 C1.●calculate v. 计算， 核算 It has been calculated that … eg. It has been calculated that at least 47000 jobs were lost last year. (be) calculated to do sth. eg. The speech was calculated to win votes.2. call v. 叫；喊；打电话 a girl called Mary a girl calling herself Mary call on call at sp. call for call up call off call in3. calm adj. 镇静的、沉着的 calm down v.使镇静 keep calm4. camp n.营 v.野营；宿营 summer camp 夏令营 go camping 去野营5. can 否定：cannot= can’t can’t help doing = can’t help but do 禁不住 can not…too… = can never…too… 越…越好/再…也不为过 You can never be too careful when crossing the street.6. care n. 照料；保管 take care of 照顾、保管 take care (that)…当心 v. 在乎；介意 I don’t care. 我不在乎/我不放在心上。 care for 喜欢；照顾 care about 关心；在乎7. careful adj. 仔细的；小心的 be careful of… 当心,小心 listen carefully8. carry v. 拿；搬；运；背 carry on 继续、进行 carry out 实施、执行 139. case n. 情况；案件；病例 in case +句子/in case of +名词 万一 in this/that case 如果这样/那样的话 in no case 绝不 as is often the case 事实往往如此 eg: As is often the case, women live longer than man. There are some cases where this method won’t work.10. ◎cash n. 现金 pay in cash /by check vt. 兑现 ~ a checkcash in on…从...获得利润 The shop are cashing in on temporary shortage by raising prices.11.●cast v. 扔，抛，撒 cast your net wide cast about/ around for sth cast sb./ sth out cast sb./ sth aside be cast away be cast down cast sth off12. catch—caught—caught catch up with 赶上 catch sight of 看见 catch sb. doing 撞见/捉住某人做某事 catch one’s eye= attract one’s attention 引起某人注意；引人注目13.●cater v. 提供（承办）酒席，满足需求 cater for sth/sb : The class caters for all ability ranges. cater to sth/ sb: It catered for all tastes.14. cattle n. 牛（总称）单复同形 The cattle are in the shed. 牛在牛棚里。15. cause n. 原因、起因 cause and effect 因果 the cause of fire/cancer 火灾/癌症的起因 v. 引起；促使 The storm left, ____ a lot of damage to this area.16. ◎cautious adj. 谨慎的 小心的 be cautious of/ about... caution n. 谨慎 小心 with caution 小心地 vt. 警告...小心... caution sb. to do caution sb. against... 警告某人警惕 We were cautioned not to drive too fast.17. celebrate v. 庆祝 celebrate one’s birthday celebrate Christmas18.◎central adj. 中心的，中央的 central bank/government 1） 主要的，首要的 play a central role in… 在…起着主导作用。 centre n. in the centre of the room v. centre on /upon/ round /around…把…当中心 使…成为中心19.◎ceremony n. 典礼，仪式 1) attend a wedding ceremony 2) stand on ceremony 拘于礼节 without ceremony 粗鲁无礼，不拘礼节20. certain adj. 确定的；无疑的 certainly adv. be certain of= be sure of 对…确信的 be certain to do =be sure to do 一定会、必然 make sure/certain of… 保证、弄清楚 * It is certain that…21.◎challenge face/ take up a challenge 面对/接收挑战 14 challenging adj 具有挑战性的 a challenging job22. chance n. 机会；可能性 give sb. a chance 给…一次机会; take a chance/chances 冒险；碰运气 by chance/accident 偶然; There is a/no chance that… 有可能/不可能…23. change v. 改变、变化; n. 变化；零钱（不可数） change…into… 把……变成; change one’s mind 改变主意 Great changes have taken place in China. There is no time to get changed before the party. Do you have any change on/with you ?24.●characteristic adj. 独特的 n. 特征 特点 a key characteristic of…25. charge n./vt charge…for… 收/要价多少; charge sb. with sth/doing 指控某人做了 get the phone charged 手机被充电; The soldiers were charging forward bravely.战士们勇敢地向前冲。 take charge of 负责、管理 in charge of 负责; in the charge of 被/由… 负责; free of charge 免费26. chat v./n. 聊天；闲谈 chat—chatted—chatted—chatting have a chat with sb. 与某人聊天; chat room 聊天室27. check v./ n. 检查；核对；批改; 支票 by check 用支票支付 辨析： check examine check 指核对某事物是否正确, examine 表检查、调查、审查等 check the answers check the mailbox 核实邮箱（看有没有信） examine your body/eyes examine the machine28. cheer n./vi. 欢呼；喝彩 A great cheer went up from the crowd. cheer sb on 为某人加油 cheer up 振作起来；高兴起来 Cheers ! 共同举杯29. ◎cheerful adj 兴高采烈的，高兴地 a cheerful smile30. cheque＝ check(美) 支票 in cash 付现金 by check/cheque 用支票支付31. chicken c/n. 小鸡 u/n. 鸡肉 Would you like some chicken? 来点鸡肉怎么样？ Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched. 不要在还没孵出小鸡之前先数鸡。（别指望过早；别打如意算盘）32. chief adj. 主要的；首要的 n. 首领；领导人 chiefs (复数)33. choice c/n. 选择； choose v. 选择 choose—chose—chosen make a choice /make choices 做选择 have no choice but to do 除了…别无选择 We chose Bill as chairman. There are a lot of books to choose from.34. Christmas Merry Christmas! on Christmas Eve; at Christmas 圣诞节期间 on Christmas 在圣诞节这天 1535. church go to church; attend church 去教堂做礼拜36. cinema 电影院 go to the cinema37. circle n. 圆圈 vi 环绕，盘旋 The plane circled over the airport before landing.38.●circulate v. 循环，流传，传阅 circulate sth (to sb.) The document will be circulated to all members.39.●clarify v.澄清，阐明，使…..纯净 clarify a situation/ problem/ issue clarification n. seek clarification of40. class after class; have classes; the first class 头等； the working class 工人阶级41.●classify 把……分类为 classify…into… classify sb./ sth as … Only eleven of these accidents were classified as major.42. clean v. 打扫；弄干净 clean up；clean the table/the room adj. 清洁的43. clear adj. 清晰的 clear water; clear glass; a clear explanation; make oneself clear v 清除，放晴 clear away 雾烟等消散；clear up （天气）放晴； clearly adv.44. close vt. 关闭 adj. 近的；亲密的 adv. 近地 closely adv. 密切地；仔细地 watch closely 密切注视；仔细观察 a close friend; be/stand/get close to; close the door/eyes; with his eyes closed/open close down 关闭、倒闭45. cloth u/c 布料，抹布； a piece of cloth； a table cloth； clothing u/n (总称) 衣服 a piece of clothing； an article of clothing clothes(pl.) 衣服；46. coast 海岸 on/along the coast 在岸上/沿岸 off the coast 离海岸不远的地方47. coffee a cup of coffee; a coffee/two coffees48. coin c/n Every coin has two sides. 事物皆有两面性49.●coincidence n.共同发生,巧合 by coincidence what a coincidence a strange/ remarkable coincidence50. collect vt. 收集；搜集 collect stamps/stamp collecting 集邮51.●collection 收藏品 a stamp collection have a large collection of books52.●combine 使联合,使结合 combine A with/ and B53. come came-came-come come up with 提出；想出 come across 偶遇; come about 产生，发生; come on 加油；快点；得啦 come true 实现; come up 走近；被提出；想起；发芽 come out 出来；出版54. comfort v. 安慰 u/n 舒适 live in comfort 生活安逸; a comfort 令人安慰的人或事 comfortable adj. live a comfortable life comfortably adv. live comfortably55.●command n.&v 命令，指挥，支配 at /by one’s command get command of under one’s command 16 have a good command of command sb. to do sth. command that clause (should do)56. ◎comment n. 评论 make a comment on /about sth vi comment on/ upon sth57.●commit 犯, 干(坏事)等 commit murder/ suicide commit sb/ yourself to sth/ doing commit yourself (to sth): You don’t have to commit yourself now, just think about it.58. common a common mistake 常见错误; common practice 惯例; common sense 常识 have much/a lot/ little/nothing in common； in common with… 和……一样59. ◎communicate vt 传达，传递（想法，感情，思想等） communication n He was eager to communicate his ideas to the group. vi 与某人交流（信息或消息，意见等） ，沟通 communicate with sb60. company u/n. 交往；陪伴 c/n. 公司 keep sb. company 陪伴某人61. compare compare…with… 把…和…比较 ； compare…to… 把…比作… compared with/to (作状语) 与…相比 Compared with/to other people, he is fortunate.62.●compensate 补偿,赔偿,弥补 compensate for sth compensate sb for sth63. ◎compete vi 比赛，竞赛 competition n. compete with / against sb in sth for sth64. complete adj. 完整的 v. 完成、结束 a complete story 完整的故事 complete the project completely adv. be completely destroyed 彻底毁坏65. ●compromise 妥协；折中，互让；和解 agree on a compromise make a compromise with by compromise reach/ come to/ arrive at/ work out a compromise66.●compulsory 强制的,义务的 It is compulsory for sb to do It is compulsory for all motorcyclists to wear helmets. compulsory education/ schooling compulsory purchase67. ◎concentrate v. 集中（思想等） concentration n I can’t concentrate with that noise going on. concentrate (sth) on (doing) sth 集中…做… I decided to concentrate all my efforts on finding somewhere to live68. ◎concern v 1) 让某人担忧 What concerns me is our lack of preparation for the change. 2) 与…有关 be concerned with 3) 关心，挂念 be concerned about 4) 就…而言 as far as sb is concerned n. show a /no concern about concerning prep. 关系到， 涉及 17 He asked me several questions concerning the future of the company.69. concert 音乐会；演奏会 go to a concert a live concert 现场演奏的音乐会70. ◎conclude v 1) 结束 conclude (sth)(with sth) He concluded by wishing everyone a safe trip home. 2) 推断出 conclude sth from sth What do you conclude from that? conclusion n. draw /reach /come to a conclusion 得出结论 in conclusion 总之,最后 In conclusion, I would like to thank you.71.●concrete,明确的,具体的 concrete floor concrete evidence72.●condemn vt. 谴责；判刑；宣告……有罪(与 to 连用) 迫使…接受(困境)，使…注定 condemn sb/ sth for… condemn sb. to be condemned/ sentenced to…73. condition 状况；条件 in good/excellent/bad/poor condition 处于良好/极佳/糟糕的状况 out of condition 不在状况； living conditions 生活条件 * on condition that (连词) 如果；条件是 They agreed to lend us the car on condition that (only if) we returned it before the weekend.74. ◎conduct vt. 1) 引导，带领 conduct sb around sp 2) 实施，执行 conduct an experiment 3) 指挥 conduct a concert 4) 传导 conduct electricity 5) 举止，表现 conduct oneself n. 行为，举止75. ◎confident adj. be confident about/of sth confidence n. 1) gain/lose confidence 2) have confidence in sb/sth 3) be in sb’s confidence 受某人信任，是某人的心腹 4) take sb into your confidence 向某人吐露内心秘密76. ◎confirm vt. 证实，批准，确认 confirm sth/ that/wh- Rumours of job losses were later confirmed. Has everyone confirmed (that) they are coming? Can you confirm what happened?77.●conflict : in conflict with78. ◎confuse vt 1）使糊涂，使迷惑 They confused me with conflicting accounts of what happened. 2） 混淆 confuse A with/and B Be careful not to confuse quality with quantity. confusion n. 1) confusion about/over sth 困惑 There is a confusion about what the correct procedure should be. 2) confusion between A and B 混淆 confusion between letters like “o” or “a”79. congratulation n 祝贺名词常用复数 Congratulations to you ! 18 congratulate v congratulate sb. on sth. 祝贺某人在某方面……80. connect v. 1) connect A to/with/ and B 使连接，联结 The towns are connected by trains and bus services. 2) connect sth (to sth) 接通，使…连接 First connect the printer to the computer. 3) connect sb / sth (with sb / sth) , be connected with 与…有联系/关联 Theory is closely connected with practice. 4)为某人接通电话 Hold on, please, I’m trying to connect you.81. ◎connection n. 连接物，接触，联系 in connection with sb/ sth 与…有关 A man has been arrested in connection with the murder of the manager.82. ◎consequence n. 结果，后果；重要性，重大 as a consequence /result in consequence 结果 as a consequence /result of in consequence of 由于83. consider 1) 认为；把……看做； 2) 考虑 1) consider sth/doing sth/wh- 考虑 We are considering buying a new car. He was considering what to do next. 2) consider sb/sth (as /to be) sth 认为 This award is considered (to be ) a great honor. 3) sb be considered to have done sth 认为某人已经做了某事 Bell is considered to have invented the telephone. 4) all things considered 从各方面看来，总而言之84.●considerate : It is considerate of him to wait. considering prep.85. ◎consideration n. 考虑 take sth into consideration 考虑到 Taking everything into consideration, the event was a great success. All things _______ into consideration, I think his plan is practical.86. ◎consist vi 包含，组成，构成 1) consist of 由…组成 The committee consists of ten members. 2) consist in 在于，存在于 The beauty of the city consists in its magnificent buildings. consistent adj 一致的 be consistent with 与…一致87. ◎construction n. 建造，建设 be under construction 正在修建中 construct vt 1)建造，修建 construct a bridge 2) 创建 construct a theory86. ◎consult vt 1) 咨询，请教 consult sb (about) sth 2) 与某人商量 consult (with) sb about/on sth 3) 查阅，查询 consult a dictionary88. contain v. container n. 容器，集装箱 1) 包含/括 The book contains 12 units. 2）含有物质/成分 Sea water contains a lot of salt. 3）容纳、装有 The envelope contained 500 dollars.89. content adj. 甘愿的，满意的；n.内容 19 be content with 满足于； be content to do 甘愿做某事 the content of the article 文章内容； read the contents of the book 读目录90. continue v. 继续 continue doing / to do / with91. ◎contrary adj. 相反的 Contrary to popular belief, many cats dislike milk. n. 相反，反而 on the contrary 相反，反之92.●contribute v. 1) contribute (sth) (to/ towards sth) 捐献，捐赠 We contributed 5000 yuan to the earthquake fund. 2) contribute to 导致，有助于 Smoking contributes to lung cancer. 3) contribute (sth) (to sth) 撰稿，在会议或会谈期间讲话，发表意见 She contributed (a number of articles )to the magazine. We hope everyone will contribute to the discussion.93. ◎ contribution n. 贡献，奉献 make a contribution to sth 对…做贡献94. ◎ convenience n. 便利 at one’s convenience for one’s convenience convenient adj It is convenient for sb to do sth It is convenient to sb If (it is ) convenient95.●convey 传送,传达,表达 convey sth to sb convey sb/sth from …to…96.●convince 使确信,使信服 convince sb/ yourself of sth convince sb to do I have been trying to convince him to see a doctor. convinced adj. be convinced of/ that: I am convinced that she is innocent. I am convinced of her innocence.97. corner n. 街角； 困境； vt 使…落入圈套 There is a hotel on / at the corner of the street. drive / force sb into a corner 把某人逼入困境 round / around the corner 很近，在附近98.correct adj 正确的，恰当的； vt 纠正，批改 I think you’ve made the correct decision. I spent all evening correcting essays. correctly adv. Have you spelled it correctly?99. cost n 花费；代价，损失；vt 需付费；使损失 the high / low cost of housing she saved him from the fire but at the cost of her own life. at all costs 不惜任何代价 You must stop the press from finding out at all costs. The hospital will cost 2 million dollars to build. That one mistake almost cost him his life.100. count v 数数；重要 Every point in this game counts. count down 倒计时 count on sb/sth 依赖 I’m counting on you to help me.112.couple n.两人、物；几个人、物；一对夫妻 a young / an elderly couple I saw a couple of men get out . We went there a couple of years ago. 20101. courage n. courageous adj take courage (from sth) 因某事而鼓起勇气; lose courage102.course n.课程；航线；进程；一道菜 take a course in art and design The plane was on/ off course. an event that changed the course of history The main course was roast duck. in course of sth 在…的过程中 in / over the course of 在…期间103.cover v.遮盖；覆盖；涉及，处理；足以支付；行走一段路程；占一片面积；报道 She covered her face with her hands. Much of the country is covered by forest. The survey covers all aspects of the company. Your parents will have to cover your tuition fees. $ 100 should cover your expenses. By sunset we had covered thirty miles. The park covers an area of 1000 square kilometers. She is covering the conference.104.crazy adj 疯狂的，愚蠢的，非常气愤的；热衷于 She must be crazy to lend him money. That noise is driving me crazy. Rick is crazy about football. like crazy/ mad 拼命地，疯狂地 We worked like crazy to get it done on time.105. ◎credit n. 1) on credit 赊购，赊欠 2) three credits 三个学分 3) credit card 信用卡 4) to one’s credit 值得赞扬，使受尊重 ( Much/ Greatly) to his credit, Jack refused to accept the gift.106. cross v.穿越，横过；交叉，交叠；adj 生气的，愤怒的 cross the mountains 翻过高山 She sat with her legs crossed. I was cross with him for being late. across prep. run across the road107. crowd n.人群； v.挤满，使拥挤 Police had to break up the crowd. Crowds of people poured into the street. Thousands of people crowded the narrow streets. crowded adj 拥挤的 In the spring the place is crowded with skiers.108. cruel adj 残忍的； 引起痛苦的 be cruel to… Her father’s death was a cruel blow. cruelly adv. cruelty n109.●cure cure sb of sth； find a cure for…110.curious adj be curious about … be curious to do… curiously adv. curiousity n. 21111.custom n.风俗，习俗；个人习惯 It is the custom in that country for women to marry young. It was her custom to rise early.112.cut v. have one’s hair cut His salary has been cut by ten percent . 他的薪金减少了 10%。 cut through 抄近路穿过；走近路 cut down 砍倒；削减，缩小 We need to cut the article down to 1000 words. cut in 插嘴；打断 She kept cutting in on our conversation. cut off 停止，中断；割掉，砍掉； 切断…的去路，以外界隔绝 Our water supply has been cut off. He had his finger cut off in an accident at work. The army was cut off from its base. cut up 切碎 He cut up the meat on his plate. cut sth out of sth 裁剪 She cut the dress out of some old materials. D1.daily n. adj. adv. a daily visit be visited daily The story was in all the dailies.2.damage v. The storm did / caused great damage to the country. Smoking seriously damages your health.3.danger n. How many workers are in danger of losing their jobs? Doctors said she is now out of danger. Police said the man was a danger to the public. dangerous adj It would be dangerous for you to stay here.4.dare v. He didn’t dare (to) say what he thought. How dare you 你竟敢 How dare you talk to me like that? I dare say 我想，很可能 I dare say you know about it already.5. date n. v. We need to fix a date for the next meeting . date back to / date from a law dating from the 17th century. make a date6.dawn n. They start work at dawn. We arrived in Sydney as dawn broke. He works from dawn till dusk.7.deal dealt dealt v. deal with 对付，应付；解决，处理；涉及，关于 She is used to dealing with all kinds of people in her job. Have you dealt with these letters yet? Her poems often deal with the subject of death. a good/great deal of 22 They spent a great deal of money. It is a deal. 就这么办吧！8.◎debt n. 债务，欠款 pay off/clear/repay the debts be in debt 欠债 go/get/run/slip into debt 陷入债务之中9.decision n. make a decision10.declare v.公布，宣布；声明，断言 The government has declared a state of emergency. Germany declared war on France on 1 August 1914. He declared that he was in love with her. declare for 声明支持 declare against 声明反对11.● decline 拒绝,谢绝,下降 The number of tourists declined by 10%. Her health was declining rapidly. I offered to give them a lift but they declined with thanks.12.◎decorate v. 装饰修饰 decoration n. 装饰，装饰品，奖章 decorate A with B 装点，布置 decorate sb. for bravery 因为勇敢授予奖章13.◎decrease v. (使) 减少，变小 decrease (sth.) to 1000 decrease (sth.) by 10%14.deed n. do a good deed15.defeat v. n. a narrow defeat 惜败 a heavy defeat 惨败 admit defeat He defeated the champion.16.defend v. We are trained to defend themselves against knife attacks. 我们都接受过自卫训练，能够对付持刀袭击。 Troops have been sent to defend the borders. 已派出部队去守卫边疆。 He defended his wife against rumours and allegations. 针对谣言和指控他为妻子进行了辩护。 defence n. Soldiers who died in defence of their country17.degree n.度数（角）； 度数（温度）；程度； 学位 an angle of ninety degrees Water freezes at zero degree. I agree with you to a certain degree. He has a master’s degree from Harvard.18.delay v. a delay of two hours a two-hour delay report it to the police without delay Thousands of passengers were delayed for over an hour. delay doing:He delayed telling her news,waiting for the right moment.19. ● delight 快乐,乐事 to the delight of sb with delight take(great)delight in doing: He takes great delight in proving others wrong. The guitar is a delight to play. delight in sth/ doing sth 23 delighted: be delighted to do/ that/ by/at/ with He was delighted at the news of the wedding.20. ● deliver deliver a baby Do you have your milk delivered? She is due to deliver a lecture. 安排她做一个演讲。21.demand v. meet / satisfy one’s demands in demand Good secretaries are always in demand. I demand to see the manager. I demand that all the books be sent to Tibet.22. depend v. depend on He was the sort of person you could depend on . Depend upon it we won’t give up. 请相信我们绝不会放弃。 It / That depends.23.describe/ description Can you describe him to me? a brief / general description24. design v. design a car/ a kitchen a badly designed kitchen be designed for The film is designed for children. be designed to do The programme is designed to help poor people.25.desire n. v. we all desire health and happiness. a strong desire for power26. destroy v. The building was completely destroyed by fire.27.determine v. determine to do They determined to start early. be determined to do I am determined to succeed. determination He fought the illness with courage and determination.28.develop v.发展，壮大； 疾病开始侵袭；冲洗 She developed the company from nothing. I had the film developed. Her son developed asthma when he was two. develop a habit developed / developing/ development with the development of science and technology29.◎devotion n. 奉献，奉献精神 devote v. 奉献，贡献 one’s devotion to his job devote oneself/ one’s time /one’s energy to sth. /doing sth. be devoted to sth/doing sth30.diary 日记 n. keep a diary31. dictation 听写 n. have a dictation32.◎diet n. 饮食 go/be on a diet 节食33.different adj. 不同的 A be different from B in sth difference n. 区别 tell the difference between A and B in sth make a / no / some difference to sb/sth The rain didn’t make much difference to the game.34.difficult adj. /difficulty n. have difficulty (in) doing sth have difficulty with 名词35.dig (dug ,dug ,digging) v.挖；挖掘 24 dig a hole dig sth up 掘地，平整土地；挖掘出36.direction n. 方向，指导 in the direction of…朝….方向 in all directions 朝四面八方 under sb’s direction 在……指导下37.◎disabled a. 残废的，残疾的 The disabled were sent to the hospital.38.◎disadvantage advantages and disadvantages take advantage of have an advantage over 优于…39.◎disagree vi. 意见不一致，持不同意见 disagree with what sb. said disagree on/about sth 就某事达成一致意见 sth disagree with sb 食物天气等使某人身体不适40.disappoint v. 使…..失望 The movie disappointed me. disappointed / disappointing be disappointed with /in about /at be disappointed to see/hear/find a disappointed expression disappointing news disappointment n. 失望 much to one’s disappointment be a disappointment to sb41.◎discount n. 折扣 discount price at a discount 以折扣价42.● discourage 使气馁 discourage sb from doing sthdiscouraged discouraging discouragement43.discover v. / discovery n. make a discovery44.discuss v. discuss sth with sb discussion n. under discussion have/ hold a discussion45.dish n.盘子，餐具 I’ll do the dishes. 我来洗碗。46.◎dislike v. 不喜欢，厌恶 1) dislike doing 2) dislike it + 从句47. ◎dismiss v. 1) 拒绝考虑 dismiss sth as He just laughed and dismissed my suggestion as unrealistic. 他只是笑笑，就以不实际为由拒绝了我的建议。 2）解雇 dismiss sb for sth dismiss sb. from the post 3) 打发走，解散 The teacher will dismiss the class early today because of the snow .48.distance n. 距离 distant adj. 远的 in the distance 在远处 at a distance of 数字 隔….距离49.distinction n. 区别，差别；卓越，优秀 1）make/draw a distinction 区别对待 2）the distinction between A and B 3) of great distinction 卓越的 4）have the distinction of doing sth 有荣誉殊荣做某事50. distinguish v．区别，辨别 distinguish between A and B =distinguishA from B 2551.divide v. 划分；分配；除 ； divide sth up into 把…..分成…..份 divide sth up between / among sb 在….. 之间均分 The food was divided among all the people。 Nine divided by three is three. Opinions are divided on the problem.52.◎divorce 离婚，离异 1) n. get a divorce divorce rate 2) v. get divorced53.●donate 捐赠,捐献 donate sth to sb/sth donation: organ donation make a donation to54.doubt n./ v. 怀疑 I never doubted that she would come. I doubted whether / if she would come. without / beyond doubt 毫无疑问 there is no doubt about sth55.downstairs adv.到楼下，在楼下 go downstairs56.downtown adj. 市中心的； adv.往市中心区 a downtown office go downtown57.dozen n. 打 2 dozen eggs 2 dozen of these eggs dozens of eggs sell eggs by the dozen.58.drag-dragged-dragged 拖，拽 1) drag a leg 2) drag sb down 使某人感到不愉快59.draw-drew-drawn v.画； 拉，拖；吸引； draw the curtains draw sb’s attention to sth draw a conclusion 得出结论 ……draw near 临近，接近 Christmas is drawing near.60.dream n. v. 做梦 dream of/about + n/doing dream a good dream61.dress n. 衣服 v.穿衣服 She dressed the child in a coat. She dressed well / badly. be dressed in 状态 get dressed in 动作 dress up 打扮 dress up as Father Christmas62.drink-drank-drunk n.饮料 v. 喝 drink to 为……干杯 Let’s drink to the friendship between us. drunk 喝醉的 drunken 喝醉了的63. drive v.驾驶， 开车； 驱逐； 迫使 drive a car / taxi drive sb mad64.drop n.滴 v. 落下； 降低； 倒下 The fruit dropped down from the tree. The price of sugar will drop soon. drop behind 落在后面 drop in on sb/ at sp 顺便拜访人、地 drop off 下降，减退； 睡着了，打盹 drop out of sth 从…..退出，不再参加…… He dropped out of politics.65.drown v. 淹死； （声音）掩盖 a drowning man/ a drowned man The noise of the train drowned his voice.66.drug n. 药；毒品 take drugs 吸毒 drug addict 吸毒上瘾的人 2667.dry adj.干的 v.弄干 dry up 干涸 ；枯竭，耗尽68.due adj.到期的，预期的 be due to sb/sth 因为，由于 The team’s success was largely due to her efforts. be due to do 预期干某事 The next train is due to arrive in five minutes. The homework is due. E----F1. eager adj. 渴望的 be eager for sth be eager to do2. earn v. 挣；赢得； arn a living /earn one’s living she earns the respect of her students.3. easy adj. Easier said than done 说时容易做时难 Take it easy 别急，放松4. ◎educate v. 教育， 培养 educated a. 受过教育的 an educated person education n. 教育 receive a good education5. effect n. 影响，效果 cause and effect 因果 bring sth into effect 使生效 come into effect 生效 take effect 开始起作用，见效 have a … effect on sb/sth 对某人、某物有….影响 The medicine soon took effect. New controls come into effect next month. v. affect Does television affect children’s behaviour? Does television have an effect an children’s behaviour?6.effort n. 努力 make an effort /make every effort/ make efforts 做出努力 spare no effort(s) 不遗余力7. elder n 长者；长辈；adj 年纪较长的（只做定语）elder sister 大姐 Children have no respect for their elders nowadays.8. ●elect （投票）选举 v. elect sb.(as)… an elected leader/representative n. election win/lose a election run for election 参加竞选9. ◎ 1）electrical a. 电的，电器的 lectrical equipment/engineer 2）electric 用电的，电动的 electric current 电流 electric shock 电击 electric blanket 3) electronic 电子的 electronic calendar10. else adj 别的/其他的（做后置定语）or else 否则 You can use somebody else’s car. Who else can do it?11. ◎embarrass v. 使尴尬 embarrassed -embarrassing –embarrassment embarrass sb. feel embarrassed about12. ◎emergency n. 紧急情况 in case of (an) emergency13. ◎encouragement n. 鼓励-encourage-encouraged-encouraging encourage sb to do sth14. end n.末尾;终点;结束 v.结束;终止 bring sth to an end end up in failure 27 put an end to sth end up doing come to an end end up with15. ◎ energetic a. 精力旺盛的，精力充沛的 energetically adv. energy n. 精力 be full of energy16. enough n 足够 adj 足够的/充分的 ad 足够地/充分地 I can’t thank you enough.=I can’t thank you too much. old enough to go to school There are enough chairs for the guests.17. enter vt 进入 ,参加 entrance 入口，入学 enter a room enter for …报名参加… enter the competition the entrance to the hall the college entrance exanimation 大学入学考试18. ◎ enthusiastic a. 热情的，热心的 enthusiastically adv. be enthusiastic about19. ●entry 进入 Countries seeking entry into the European Union.20. ◎environment n. 环境 protect the environment environmentally friendly21. envy vt/ n 嫉妒/羡慕 envy sb sth the envy of sb22. equal adj 平等的，相同的 vt 等于 be equal to sth/doing equal the world record23. ●equip vt.提供设备；装备；配备 ________,_________ equip …with be fully equipped The course is designed to equip students for a career in nursing. equipment (不可数)装备/设备 a piece of equipment 24.escape v / n 逃跑，逃脱 escape +n/doing 逃避… escape from …逃离（地点） a narrow escape26. every other day= every second day= every two days 每隔一天、每两天 every few days 每几天27.exact adj 精确的 to be exact 确切的说 exactly adv 精确地 This is exactly what he needs.28.examine vt 检查/诊察 have one’s eyes examined29.example n 榜样 set an example to/for sb take sth for example follow sb’s example30. except prep 除…之外 His composition is good except for some spelling mistakes. I didn’t tell him anything except that I needed the money.31. ◎ exchange 交换，调换，交流 n.1）fair exchange 公平的交换 2) in exchange 作为交换 He gave me a book and I gave him a pen in exchange 3) in exchange for sth 和…交换 I took his watch in exchange in exchange for camera v. exchange A for B =exchange B with A exchange greetings32. excite vt 使兴奋/使激动 If the loud noise excites the lion, he may attack you. We are excited to hear the exciting news. in an excited voice 2833.exist vi 存在 There exists no life on the moon.(有…) ◎existence n. 存在 come into existence 开始存在，成立 be in existence 存在35. ●expect 预料；盼望；认为,预料，预期，预计 You can’t expect to learn a foreign language in a few months. expect sth of/from sb. expect too much of sb I except so/ I don’t except so ----Will you be late? ----I expect so. ( I guess / think so) As expected, they finished the work ahead of time.◎expectation n. 预料，期望beyond (all) expectation(s) 出乎意料 contrary to (all) expectations 和预料相反come up tpo one’s expectations 达到期望水平 fall short of one’s expectations 没达到期望in expectation of 准备（有某种情况） He closed the windows in ~ of rain.36. experience n 经历(cn) 经验(un) v 经历,体验 experience a different culture be experienced in sth/doing = have experience in sth/ doing37. experiment n 实验 make/ do/perform/carry out an experiment38. ◎expert n. 专家 He is an ~ cook.adj. 有经验的 be ~ at He is ~ at playing the piano.39. explain v 解释 explain sth to sb explanation n 解释40. ◎exploit vt. 利用, 剥削 In the past, farmers were ~ by landlords. 开采，开发We must ~ the country s mineral resources exploitation n. 41. ●explore vt./vi 勘探 explore sth for sth exploration n. oil exploration43. ●expose 揭露 陈述，揭露（尤指对令人震惊的或故意保密的事实） My job as a journalist is to expose the truth. 露出 He smiled ,exposing a set of amazingly white teeth. Don’t expose a baby to strong sunlight.44. express v, 表达; adj, 快的 expression n 表达/词句/表情/神色 You are free to express yourselves in class. have a worried expression on one’s face 45. eye n 眼睛/眼力 have an eye for sth 对…有鉴赏力 keep an eye on sb/sth 照看/留意 catch one’s eye 吸引注意力46. face n 脸， 表情 v 面对，面向，正视 face sth 面朝，面对 be faced with …面对，遇到47. ●fade vt./vi 褪色， （颜色）消退 The sun had faded the curtains. The curtains had faded in the sun. fade away (to disappear gradually) her smile /laughter /voice faded away48. fail v.失败，不及格，衰退，未发生 failure n, 失败 fail to do sth power failure 29 fail ( in ) sth words failed me. fail in doing My eyesight failed. If rain fails, the farmers will suffer. I fail to see why you won’t give it a try. ◎failure. n. 失败 Failure is the mother of success 失败的人或事 The man is a ~. The party was a ~49. fair adj 公平的，相当大的，白皙的，晴朗的, 金黄的：n.博览会 a fair price/ fair skin/ a fair day /fair hair fairly pretty50.fall (fell fallen) n 秋季，跌倒; v 降落，突然到来； 系动词 v 进入…状态 fall ill/asleep/silent fall behind fall over fall to the ground fall down from../fall off… A sudden silence fell. My birthday falls on a Monday this year.51. ◎fantastic. adj. 极好的 That s an ~idea. 巨大的 a ~ amount of money 荒诞的 a ~dream52. far adj /adv 远的，远地 farther, further ( further 表抽象含义 further study) far from:离…远； 远远不… His work is far from satisfactory. As/so far as I can see= In my opinion=Personally 依我看….53. fault n 缺点，毛病 Why should I say sorry when it’s not my fault? find fault with sb54. favor n 恩惠，好处，帮忙 Could you do me a favor? Can I ask a favor? 请帮个忙好吗？ We are all in favor of the plan.55. ●feast 盛会，宴会 v. feast your eyes n. a wedding feast The evening was a real feast for music lovers. 56. feed v 喂养，饲养 They have a large family to feed. We feed horses on grass.(We feed grass to horses.) 57.feel (felt,felt) vt, link.v 发觉，意识到，感觉 She couldn’t feel her legs.他的双腿失去了知觉。 You will feel better after a good night’s sleep. I am not quite feeling myself today. We teachers feel strongly that … The blind man felt his way along the road. feel like sth/doing sth 58.few n,adj 不多，少数，少数的， only a few/quite a few/a good few/every few days I have a few friends here./I have few friends here. 30 The few friends I made here are all teachers. 59.figure n,v 数字，图形，身形，人物 be round in figure 呈圆形 have a good figure 身材好 figure out a problem 算出一道题 I couldn’t figure out who he was.我想不出他是谁。 60.fill vt vi 填满，装满 Fill the glass with water. A big crowd filled the hall. Her eyes suddenly filled with tears. fill in the blank/fill in the hole/fill up 61.film n v 电影，影片，拍摄 develop a film Everything was covered in a film of dust.62.find (found,found) 找到，发现，感到 find one’s way I find it necessary to find a good map. When she came to, she found herself lying in bed. The teacher found herself surrounded by her students. I wanted to talk to him but he was nowhere to be found.63.fire n 火 v 射击，开火，解雇,点燃 be on fire for /fire sb64.fit n 合适的衣服 adj 合适的，胜任的 v 适合 a good fit/be fit for/be fit to do/keep fit/fit sb well/ think(see) fit to do 认为合适65.fix v.修理，安装，确定，决定 Has the date of the meeting been fixed? The car can’t start—can you fix it? All the students are listening to the teacher with their eyes fixed on the blackboard. This is a fixed phrase.66. flash n 闪光，转瞬间 v 闪光 Memories flashed through my mind.往事历历在目。 a flash of lightning/in a flash69. ◎flesh. n. 肉 your own ~ and blood 你自己的亲骨肉 in the flesh 亲自，本人70. flood n 洪水，一大阵 v 淹没 The river is in flood.河水泛滥。 What a flood of rain.好大一阵雨。 Letters flooded the office.信件大量涌入办事处。 Warmth flooded my heart.我心里热乎乎的。71.floor n 地板，（议会的）发言权 take the floor 发言 live on the third floor have/get the floor 取得发言权72. ◎fluent adj. 流利的 He is ~ in English. He speaks ~ English fluently adv. fluency n.73. fly(flew, flown) v 飞，飞行，放，飘，突然开 n 飞行，苍蝇 Birds fly in the sky. A flag flies in the wind. How time flies.时间飞逝。 The door flew open.门突然开了。 3174. ◎focus. vt. 集中 ~ one s eyes /attention Eyes were ~ed on him n. 焦点，引人注目的中心75. follow v 跟随，效仿，跟得上 follow sb up the stairs/follow one’s example/follow this road in the following years Their requirements are as follows. Do you follow me? The teacher came in, followed by some students./following some students. 76.fool n 傻子 v 愚弄 make a fool of sb fool sb into doing sth All(April)Fools’ Day 77.for ten for a dollar/take sb for a fool/So much for today/ a ticket for tomorrow He is tall for his age78. ●forbid 禁止；不许 ________,_________ forbid sb. from doing forbid sb.to do forbid doing the Forbidden City79. force v 强迫，迫使 n 外力 force sb to do sth force sb into doing force one’s way force a smile82. forget v 忘记 forget to do sth/forget doing Don’t forget me to your mother. You must do it before you forget it. Forget about sth 别再想… Forget it.83. ●fortune u/n 财产；运气 seek one’s fortune make one’s fortune84. free v 自由的，空闲的，免费的 be free from/of free of charge/for free/free sb from(of) a tax-free shop/a smoke-free room85. freeze vi vt 结冰 Water freezes at zero degrees centigrade. I am freezing.我快冻僵了。 Smiles froze on her face.笑容在她脸上僵住了。 be frozen/freeze to death freezing cold/burning hot86. fresh adj 新鲜的 fresh air/water/color/news87. friend n 朋友 make friends with sb a friend of Mary’s / a friend of mine friendly adj 友好的88.fun n 有趣的事，娱乐，玩笑 It is great fun to swim in a pool in summer. have fun doing just for fun make fun of sb89. ◎function. n. 功能，作用，职责 the ~ of a chairman. 聚会，集会 official ~s v. 起作用，正常工作 The machine functions well. G1.gain n.收益，获利 v 获得，赚得，赢得 gain knowledge The clock gains. He gained 10kg in weight. No pains, no gains.2. ●gather vt vi 聚集，采集 gathering n. gather breath/gather courage/gather strength She gathered a crowed around her. 32 A crowed of people gathered around her. The train was gathering speed.3.◎generous adj. 慷慨大方的 It s ~ of you to lend me the car. be ~ to sb 对某人慷慨 丰盛的 a ~ meal. generosity n.4.get v 成为，得到，到达 Mother often gets me to wash the dishes. The machine broke down. Can you get it working? I am going to get my bike repaired. You got it. Hard work can get you somewhere. get sth across to sb get along with get down to doing get rid of get round get away with get away from get on6.gift n 赠品，礼 a birthday gift have a gift for a man of many gifts ◎gifted = talented 有天赋的 a ~ student7. give v 递给，付出，给予 give out/up/away/in/off8. ◎glory n. 荣誉，光荣，赞美 It s a great glory to die for our country. glorious adj.9. go v 去，走，到 n 尝试 All the money he got went in books. The story goes that there was a mean landlord named ZhouBapi. Where does the book go? There is five minutes to go./There is a long way to go. go hungry/thirsty/mad/bad/wrong have a go 试试 be on the go 忙碌10. good adj n have a good time doing a good few books a good many books give sb a good beating as good as 和…一样好，几乎 be good at English be good for one’s health be good to sb do good to sb=do sb good It is no good doing11. ◎grasp vt. 抓牢，抓紧 He suddenly ~ my arm. 理解，领会 He ~ d what I said.12. ●grateful 感激的，感谢的 be grateful for/that I’m so grateful for all your help. She was grateful that he helped him a lot.13. ◎greedy adj. 贪婪的 It’s ~ for you to take so money. 贪图权利 be ~ for power14. greet v 招呼，迎接，入（耳），触（目），扑（鼻） greet sb with a nod 点头示意 greet the New Year 迎接新年 A sweet smell greets the nose.香气扑鼻15.grow vt vi link.v 成长，变得 He grew tall./old. I grew to like the dog.(grow to do=come to do) a growing number of people16. ●guarantee 保证 guarantee sb./sth I ~ you a wonderful film. 33 guarantee to do I can’t ~ to work for more than a year. guarantee that … I ~ that you’ll love this film.17. guess v 猜测 What do you guess has happened to him? I guess so./I guess not. You have guessed it.18. ◎guidance n. 引导，指导，建议 under one’ ~ with one’s help guide v/n. 引导，导游19. ◎guilty adj. 有罪的 He was ~ of murder. He was found ~ . I feel ~ of what I did. 32.guitar. H1.habit n 习惯 form/develop the(a) habit of be in the(a )habit of fall/get into the(a) habit of2.hand v 传递 n 手，指针 have a hand in give/lend sb a hand hand in /out/down from hand to hand on the one hand…on the other hand…3.◎handle n. 把手 the ~ of the door vt. 处理，应付 I have no idea how to ~ the children.4.●handy 便利的，顺手的 It’s quite a handy little tool. I always keep my gun handy just in case.5.hang vt vi 绞刑，上吊，悬挂 hang one’s head in shame 含羞低头 hang curtains hang out/up6.happen v 发生，碰巧 What happened to her? It so happened that I had no money with me. I happened to have no money with me.7.hardly 几乎不 Hardly does she go home. Hardly had he got home when it began to rain.8.◎harm 危害 n do (no) ~ to sb/sth v ~ sb/sth9. harvest n. A heavy snow promises a good harvest. 瑞雪兆丰年 get in the harvest 收庄稼10.hate v. hate to do/ doing I hate it when people cry.11. have v. ○ 1 have (got) to ○ 2 have on 穿着(表状态，无进行时态) He had a red jacket on. ○ 3 have sth done 让别人做某事/ 主语遭受… Is this the watch you have repaired? She had her bag stolen. ○ 4 have sb do 让某人去做某事 Who do you have type the letter? 5 have something / nothing to do with…与..有/没有关系 ○ 6 have sb doing…使某人做某事/ 与 cannot/won’t 连用表示不能容忍… ○ 34 I have my students listening attentively. 我使学生们听得入神. I can’t have people arriving late all the time. 我不能忍受人们总是迟到.12. head 1) n. ○ 1 use your head 动动脑筋 2 hold one’s head high 趾高气扬 ○ ○ 3 from head to foot/ toe 从头到脚 ○ 4 hit sb. on the head 击中某人的头 2) v. head for sp.朝某处走去13. health n. healthy adj. in good / bad health keep healthy ~ diet14. hear v. ○ 1 hear about / of 听说 ○ 2 hear from 收到某人的来信 ○ 3 hear sb. do/ doing 听到某人做了某事/听到某人正在做某事15. heart n. ○ 1 learn sth. by heart 记住 ○ 2 lose heart 灰心,泄气 3 lose one’s heart to sb.倾心于某人 ○ ○ 4 heart and soul 全心全意 5 from the bottom of one’s heart 由衷的 ○16. heavy adj. heavily adv. ○ 1 a heavy smoker 烟瘾极大的人○2 heavy rain/ traffic 大雨/交通繁忙 ○ 3 rain heavily17. height n. ○ 1 at a height of 30,000 meters 2 It’s about 2 meters high/ in height. ○18. help n. / v. ○ 1 help sb. (to) do/with sth. ○ 2 help sb out of 帮助..摆脱… 3 can’t help doing 禁不住做… ○ ○ 4 can not help but do 不得不做某事 ○ 5 help oneself to sth. 随便用… 6 with one’s help ○19.◎helpful adj. be very ~ = be of great help20.◎hesitate vt. ~ to do sth hesitation n. without hesitation21.high 1) adj. at a high / low price in a high voice in high spirits 2) adv. 与 highly 的区别 1 high 表示具体的含义 “高高地 ” fly high in the sky/ jump high ○ 2 highly 表示的是抽象的含义 “高度地” ○ a highly developed country think / speak highly of22. history n. ○ 1 in history 在历史上 ○ 2 the history of America 美国的历史 3 have a long history / have a history of… ○ ○ 4 make history 创造历史23. hit (hit , hit) 1) v. ○ 1 撞 击打 hit sb. on the head ○ 2 袭击 An earthquake hit there. ○ 3 突然想起 An idea hit/ strike/occur to me. It suddenly hit me that……. 2) n.受欢迎的/引起轰动的人或物 He is a real hit. // a hit song24. hold- held-held ○ 1 catch / get / take hold of 抓住 拿着 ○ 2 hold a meeting 举行会议 hold one’s breath 屏住呼吸 hold office/ the position 任职 hold sb. prisoner 监禁某人 hold one’s head high 趾高气扬 hold together （使…）团结一致 ○ 3 hold on 别挂断；稍等，等着； 坚持住，挺住 hold up 支撑; 延误，耽搁；抢劫；举出例子，提出…作为榜样 35 An accident is holding up traffic. She’s always holding up her children as models of good behavior. hold on to 抓住不放； 保住…不出卖 hold back 拦阻；向某人隐瞒（from sb.）;抑制，控制 She managed to hold back her anger/ tears. hold out 坚持，维持；伸出手，递出东西； hold out my hands ○ 4 容纳 The plane holds about 300 passengers.25. honor 1) n.荣誉，光荣 ○ 1 in honor of 为了纪念 向某人表达敬意 2 It’s an honor for sb. to do sth. ○ 2) v. honor sb.给某人荣耀 The president honored us with a personal visit. sb. be honored… 感到荣幸 I was honored to have been mentioned in his speech.26. hope 1) n. in (the) hope of…/ that clause. 抱着…的希望 He went abroad in the hope of earning a lot of money. 2) v. ○ 1 hope to do sth. ② hope so/ I hope not. 3 hope for… 期待着… Hope for the best, prepare for the worst ○ ○ 4 I hope that you are well./ I wish that I were a bird.27 ◎host n。 主人 hostess 主持人 ~ of the TV show 东道主 ~ country vt.主持，主办 ~ the party/meeting/Olympic games28.hostess n. host actor actress waiter waitress god goddess29.◎hug v. hugged hugged They put their arms around each other and hugged. The track hugs the coast for a mile. (有一段距离紧挨某物) n. He stopped to receive hugs and kisses from the fans. He gave her mother a big hug.30.◎humor n. ----humourous adj. n. I can’t stand people with no sense of humor. They failed to see the humor of the situation. v. she thought it best to humor him rather than get into an argument.31. ◎hunt v. a. lions sometimes hunt alone. / whales are being hunted and killed. b. she is hunting for a new job. c. police are hunting for an escaped criminal. hunt sb down hunt out32.hurry 1) v. hurry sb. /sth. up 催促某人 hurry up 快点，赶快 2）n. in a hurry 赶快 3633.hurt vi./ vt. hurt one’s feelings/ leg； be badly hurt My leg hurts. Where does it hurt? 你哪疼？ I-J-K1.idea n. have some/ no idea + 从句 / of … I have no idea why she left. / I have no idea of his address.2. ◎identity n The police are trying to discover the identity of the killer. The thief used a false identity. identity card=ID card4.ill adj 1) ill 与 sick 的区别 He was ill/ sick. a sick mother 2) = bad have a bad/ an ill effect on…影响不好 speak/ think ill of sb. 说某人的坏话5. ◎illegal / legal adj. It is illegal to drive through a red light. illegally adv. He entered the country illegally.6. imagine v. imagine sth. / doing sth. I can’t imagine life without the children now. I can’t imagine his becoming a teacher.7.◎immediately adv. He answered almost immediately. Turn right immediately after the church. conj. Immediately he had gone,I remembered her name. immediate adj. an immediate reaction / response take immediate action8. ●import 进口，输入 n. the import of electrical goods. v. All the meat is imported from France.9. ◎ impression n. a) get a good / bad impression of sb a general / an overall impression b) My words made no impression on her. His trip to India makes a strong impression on him. c) be under the impression that I was under the impression that the work had already been completed. impress v. impress sb with sth / sb He impressed us with his sincerity. impress sth on / upon sb He impressed on us the need for immediate action. impress sth / itself on / upon sth Her words impressed themselves on my memory.11.in prep. 1 in a word 一句话说 ○ 2 in all 总共 ○ ○ 3 in modern times 4 be measured in tons 用吨来衡量 ○ 5 in that… 因为 ○ She was lucky in that she had friends to help her . ○ 6 in the eighteenth century/ in the1990s 7 in one’s twenties ○ 8 in pencil/ English/ ink 用铅笔/英语/墨水 ○ ○ 9 pay sth in cash 1○ 0 The wall is 3meters in height/high. / The rope is 3 meters in length/long. 3712.include v. Everyone laughed, including me. (me included.)13. increase 1) v. increase to / by 增加到/了 2) n Great demands lead to a large increase in supply. increasingly adv. 越来越多的，不断增加的 increasingly difficult/ important/ popular15. ◎indicate A red sky at night often indicated fine weather the next day. In his letter, he indicated to us that he was willing to cooperate. indication n. indication of sth / doing sth They gave no indication of how the work should be done .16. ◎ industry n.------ industrial adj. heavy / light industry17. influence n. have a strong… ~ on/ upon sb / sth ~over sb / sth His parents no longer have any ~ over her. under the ~ of sb / sth He committed the crime under the ~ of the drugs. Those friends are a bad ~ on her. v. His writings have ~d the lives of millions.18.● inform 告诉，通知 inform sb. of /that We regret to inform you that your application has been rejected. keep sb. informed of make informed decision19.◎ injure v. He ~d his knee playing football. This could seriously ~the company’s reputation. injury n. injuries There were no injuries in the crash. The players are out of the team because of injury.20. ◎ insert v. ~ sth in / into/ between sth They ~a tube in his mouth to help him breathe. ~ sth into sth He ~ed a paragraph into his will.21. insist v. 1 The man insisted that he hadn’t stolen anything and that he (should) be set free. ○ ○ 2 insist on doing sth.22. ◎inspect v. inspection n. inspector n. The teacher walked around inspecting their work.23. ◎instant n/ adj. ------ instantly adv. adj. The show was an ~success. ~coffee / noodles n. I will be back in an ~. At the very~, the door opened. I recognized her the ~ I saw her.24.instead adv. Lee was ill, so I went instead. / He didn’t reply. Instead, he left. instead of: Now I can walk to work instead of going by car. 3825.◎instruct v. ~ sb to do She arrived at 10 o’ clock as ~ed. The letter ~him to report to headquarters immediately. instruction n. follow one’s instructions carry out / ignore one’s ~s26.● insure 给…保险 vt. Have you insured the contents of your home?27.●intend 想要，打算 intend (sb.)to do I intend to spend the night there. intend that It is intended that these meetings will become a regular event. be intended for sb./sth The book, intended for children aged 5-7,sells well.28.◎ intention n ~ of doing sth / to do sth I have no ~ of going to the wedding. I had every~ of paying her back what I owe her. She is full of good ~s. He left England with the ~ of traveling in Africa.29.interest 1) v. interest sb. I bought the book that interested me most. 1 兴趣（U） show /have / feel/ express (an) interest in… 2) n. ○ lose interest in… I watched the game with interest. 2 利益(C) 常用复数形式 protect customers’ interests ○ ○ 3 a place of interest/ places of interest 30.◎ interpreter n. interpret v. ~ the poem ~ sth as~ I didn’t know whether to ~ her silence as acceptance or refusal. ~ for sb Her children ~for her. 31. ◎ interview n. a television / newspaper / radio ~ v. Which post are you being ~ed for? If you don’t ~well , you are unlikely to get the job. interviewee / interviewer n.32. introduce v. introduction n. ○ 1 introduce sb. to sb./ oneself ○ 2 introduce sb. to sth.使初次了解 It was she who first introduced me to the pleasures of sailing。 ○ 3 introduce new technology ○ 4 an introduction to English grammar33.jam n. traffic jam34.the Japanese language35.join v. ○ 1 join the party/ army ○ 2 join sb. in sth. / doing sth. ○ 3 join in the game ○ 4 join hands with sb. 5 连接 join A to B./ join A and B ○ The island is joined to the mainland by a bridge.36.joke n. ○ 1 play a joke on sb. ○ 2 have/ make a joke with sb.37.joy n. 1 (much) to one’s joy ○ ○ 2 light up with joy38.judge n. 裁判；法官 The judge sentenced him to five years in prison. 1 Don’t judge a book by its cover. 不要以貌取人 1) v. ○ ○ 2 judge by / from 39 Judging by his letter, they are having a wonderful time. judgement n. 判决 pass judgement on sb/ sth 通过对…的判决39.keep v. 1 keep (on)doing 一直做… ○ Why do you keep laughing all the time? 你为什么一直在笑? He is always keeping (on ) asking me the same question. 2 keep a secret/ one’s word/ a record ○ ○ 3 keep sb / sth from doing 4 keep the door open/ her waiting/ sb. in bed/ sb. informed of… ○ ○ 5 keep calm/ healthy/ left 6 keep sheep 养羊 ○ 7 keep up with 跟上 ○ keep up (天气)持续不变 The rain kept up all afternoon. keep back 抑制, ,忍住 keep sth back from sb. 向某人隐瞒 keep away from 远离 keep off 不接触 Keep off grass!40.the key to success 成功的关键41.kind adj . be kind to sb. 对某人友好 2) n. a kind of / all kinds of kind of 稍微 有点儿 That made me feel kind of stupid.42. go / get down on one’s knees43.knock v. 1 knock at the door 敲门 ○ 2 knock around/ about 漫游/ 虐待 ○ 3 knock down 撞到/拆掉 ○ knock over 撞翻 1 know of/ about 知道 获悉 了解 ○44.know v. ○ 3 get to know sb. 逐渐了解… 2 be known for/ as ○45.knowledge n. ○ 1 Knowledge is power. 2 have a good knowledge of… ○ L2. lack 1) v. lack (for) sth lack courage/money 2) n. ○ 2 for lack of …因为缺乏… 1 a lack of money ○ 3) be lacking in 缺乏…2. last 1) adj. the last person/ thing 最不可能的、最想不到的 He’s the last person I’d trust. The last thing I want to do is homework. 2) adv. last but not least 最后但是同样重要的是 3）n． He was the last to arrive. 4) vi.持续 The war lasted (for) 3 years.3. late 1 be late for… 1) adj. ○ ○ 2 in the late 1970s 2) adv. ○ 1 get up late ○ 2 late in the afternoon 傍晚 3) ○ 1 better late than never 迟到总比不到好 2 It’s never too late to mend 亡羊补牢 ○ ○ 3 of late = lately/ recently I haven’t seen him of late.4. lately = recently5. later adv. ○ 1 sooner or later 2 no later than…不迟于 ○ 40 ○ 3 later on 后来 Much later on, she realizes what he had meant. 1 laugh at…6. laugh v. ○ ○ 2 laugh your head off 大笑不止 ○ 3 burst out laughing/ burst into laughter7. law n. ○ 1 break/ obey/ keep the law ○ 2 by law 依据法律8. lay – laid- laid ○ 1 lay the table 放桌子 ○ 2 lay eggs 下蛋 ○ 3 lay aside 把…放在一边 ○ 4 lay down 放下 ○ 5 lay off 解雇 (laid-off 下岗的)9.lead-led-led 1 lead a happy life ○ ○ 2 lead to sth. / doing10. learn- learnt-learnt ○ 1 learn from 从…中学习,向…学习 ○ 2 learn about/ of 听说 得知 3 learn… by heart 记住 ○11. least adj. ○ 1 at (the) least ○ 2 not in the least 一点儿也不 She didn’t have the least idea what to do about it.12. leave 1) v. ○ 1 leave sp. for sp 离开…去… ○ 2 leave + 宾语+宾补 leave the door open leave her waiting for 2 hours leave him out leave him an orphan 使他成为孤儿 ○ 3 丢下 leave sth. +介词短语 leave the key on the bus ○ 4 leave out 遗漏 leave behind 把…丢在后边 leave alone,不打扰,不碰 leave off 不包括,不把…列入 2) n. 假期 ask for a two-week leave13. lecture n. attend a lecture give / deliver a lecture to sb. on…14. left adj. adv. n. ○ 1 make a left turn turn left/ turn to the left ○ 2 the money left / the remaining money15. lend a hand to sb. / lend sb. a hand16. length n. ○ 1 The road was 32 miles in length / long ○ 2 at length 最后，终于/ 详细地17. less than… 1 no less than… ○ ○ 2 more or less ○ 3 even/ much/ still less 更不用说 No explanation was offered, still less an apology.18. lesson n. ○ 1 take/ have lessons 上课 ○ 2 give lessons 授课 ○ 3 teach/ give sb. a lesson 给某人一个教训 4 draw/ take a lesson from … 从…吸取教训 ○19. let-let-let ○ 1 let sb. in/ out ○ 2 let sb(sth.) go \ let go of sb(sth.) 放手…放弃... ○ 3 let alone 不打扰/不碰/更不用说 ○ 4 let out 发出(叫声) let off 使…爆炸 ○ 5 let sb. down 使失望 6 let… be 别理某人 ○20. lie vt. 说谎 (lied-lied-lying) lie to sb n. 说谎 tell a lie/ tell lies vi.平躺 (lay-lain-lying) lie on your back/side vi.位于;存在 (lay-lain-lying) lie in/on/to 41 The book lay open on the desk. There lies… lie in 在于… Success lies in hard work.21. life n.1)生命 (pl. lives) lose/save one’s life； lay down one’s life for sb. 为…牺牲生命 2)生活 everyday life 日常生活； live/ lead a …life 3)bring…back to life 使…更有趣； come back to life 变得活跃,苏醒过来22. lift 1) n. take the lift 乘电梯； give sb. a lift 让某人搭便车 Passing the exam gave him a real lift. 他通过了考试，情绪好多了。 2）vt.举起：lift one’s eyes 抬起眼睛; He stood there with his hands lifted above his head. 高兴起来：The news lifted our spirits.23. light 1) n.光线 by the light of the moon; throw light on/ upon(把…阐述清楚) 灯 turn on/ off the lights； The light went out.灯熄灭了 2)adj. 明亮的， 浅色的，轻的 a light classroom；light blue eyes；as light as a feather；a light / sound sleep 3) vt. （lighted- lighted/ lit- lit） light a candle； a lighted candle； light up24. like vt. I like it when you do that. would like (sb.) to do； How do you like(find) …/ What do you think of/ about… 1) prep. I, like everyone else, have read these stories. 2) feel like doing25. ◎likely adj. more ~ most ~ a. be ~ to do / that Tickets are ~ to be expensive. It is more than ~ that the thieves don’t know how much it is worth. b. a ~ story 好像真有这回似的26. limit n. 界限，限度 vt. 限制 a) ~ to…；without limit 无限地 There is a limit to the amount of pain I can bear. b) ~ sb. to sth /doing sth：My parents limit my pocket money to 300 yuan.27. line n. 线， 线路 lines 台词 on line 在线的，上网的；drop sb a line 给…写封短信 The line is busy. 电话占线。 Hold the line, please. 别挂电话28. ◎link n. a） There may be a ~ between the 2 murders. b.） to establish trade ~s with Asia c）. a video / satellite ~ d.） a ~ in the chain v. a.） ~ A to/ with B ~ A and B(together) The video cameras are ~d to a powerful computer. The English Tunnel links Britain with the rest of Europe. B）. The 2 factors are directly~ed. Exposure to ultraviolet (紫外线) light is closely ~ed to skin cancer. c.） ~ up (with sb / sth) The bands have ~ed up for a charity concert. 4229. list n. v. make a list of… 列一个…的清单； list our ten favorite songs （列举）30. ◎litter n. a.） There will be fines to people who drop~. b）. ~ of sth The floor was covered with a ~ of newspapers, clothes and empty cups, v. a.） Piles of books and newspapers ~ed the floor. Broken glass ~ed the street. b）. be ~ed with sth Your article is ~ed with spelling mistakes.31. little-less-least not a little 非常； more than a little 非常 She felt tired and more than a little worried. Little did I know about him. 我一点也不了解他。32. live 1) v. 居住，生活 /liv/ live/ lead a … life； live on 以…为生; live by doing 靠做…为生 live life to the fullest 充实地生活； live up to 符合,不辜负 live with 与..住在一起；忍受 live through 经历过…而活着 2) adj./adv. /laiv/ 活着的，现场直播 a live fish; a live football match; broadcast live 区分 living/alive/ live / lively When I reached the hospital, he was alive. catch sb alive; keep our culture alive He is the greatest musician living in the world a lively discussion/lecture33. load 1) n. bear the load of bringing up her family alone 2) vt. 装载 load… with…: a car loaded with goods34. long 1) adj./adv. long before 很久以前 He had left long before I arrived here. before long 不久以后 We’ll come back before long. in the long run 从长远看 no longer/ not any longer 不再 as long as 只要 So long = Byebye 再见 2) v. 渴望 long for sb. /sth long to do Lucy has longed for a brother. I’m longing to see you again.35. look 1) n. 看；神情；外貌 have / take a close look at; He didn’t like the look in her eyes. 2) link-v. ~ + adj. / n. You made me look a complete fool. look like That looks like an interesting book. look as if It looks as if it is going to rain. 3) v. look yourself 常用于否定句，“气色不像往常好” You’re not looking yourself today. 4) 其它短语： look one’s age look after look around look back on look down upon/on look forward to look into 43 look on…as look out look through look up look up look up to 36. ◎ loose adj. a.) She usually wears her hair ~. The potatoes were sold ~ not in bags. b.) The sheep were ~ on the road. c.) a ~ shirt d. )~ soil e.) a ~ alliance/ coalition / federation f.) break / tear / cut sb / sth ~ from sb / sth He cuts himself ~ from his family. hang / stay ~ let sb / sth ~ Let her hair ~37．lose –lost-lost v. 丢失 失去 输掉 （钟表）走慢 be lost/gone/missing a lost /missing boy lose the game；lose weight；lose one’s way； lose oneself in/ be lost in Lost in thought, he didn’t notice me. This clock loses/gains(走快)two minutes a day. loss n. be at a loss 不知所措； suffer much /great loss The loss of his only son made him sad.38. lot n. a lot of = lots of parking lot 停车场 a lot adv. 很，非常 Thanks a lot 修饰比较级 I’m feeling a lot better now.39. 区分 loud/aloud/ loudly loud adj. in a loud voice adv. To make us hear more clearly, the teacher spoke louder. aloud adv. read aloud. Don’t read it silently. loudly adv. She screamed as loudly as she could. 40. ◎lucky adj. be ~ to do / (for sb)that He is ~ to be alive. She was ~enough to be chosen for the team. You were ~ that you spotted the danger in time. It was ~for us that we were able to go. Lucky you .你真走运。 You will be lucky. 但愿你走运。 M1. mad adj. 发疯的；生气的； drive sb. mad/crazy； go mad/crazy； be mad at/ with sb. about …因…和…生气2. mail n./ vt. send a letter by mail /post; mail sth to sb/ mail sb sth3. main adj. mainly adv. the main road / course4. major 1) adj. 较大的 主要的 a major road 2) n. 主修课程；专业课 主修某专业的学生 When I was at university, English was my major. In other words, I was an English major. 44 3) vi. 主修… I majored in English.5. majority n. the / a majority of … The / A majority of people interviewed prefer TV to radio.6. make v. 1) 制造 做 make sth. into…把…制成… be made into make sth. (out) of… --- be make of… make sth. from… --- be made from… 2) make coffee/tea 煮咖啡/沏茶; make the bed 铺床 3) make yourself heard/ understand (使你自己被听到/理解) make sb do sth----sb be made to do (使某人做某事) She made him her assistant. (任命) 4)link-v 成为 She will make a good mother. This room would make a nice office. 5) make money/ a fortune/ a living 6) make it 获得成功;幸免于难,渡过难关;准时到达;能够出席到场 He will never really make it as an actor. 作为演员他永远不会真正的成功. The doctors think he’s going to make it. 医生们认为他能挺过去. I’m sorry I won’t be able to make it on Sunday. 很抱歉, 星期天我不能到场. 7) make the most of… 充分利用 8) make out 辨别清楚; 理解,明白 I could just made out a figure in the darkness. I can’t make out what she wants. 9) make up 组成; 编造; 补上(for);化妆; 和好 Can I leave early this afternoon and make up the time tomorrow? 我今天下午早点儿走,明天补上这段时间,可以吗? Has he made up with her yet? 他跟她和好了吗?7.manage v. 经营,管理;设法完成 management manager manage a factory; manage to do = succeed in doing8. manner n. 1）方式，方法；态度，举止 in a friendly manner 友好的态度 2）礼貌，礼仪 （常用复数形式） table manners 餐桌礼仪 It’s good /bad manners to do sth 做某事有礼貌/没礼貌9.march 1) vt./vi. 行军,行进 march on Washington DC 向华盛顿进军 2) n. on the march 在行军中10. mark 1) v. 标记; 打分,评成绩; 纪念, 庆贺, 标志着 the goods marked with prices; I hate marking exam papers a ceremony to mark the 60th anniversary of the foundation of China. His death marked the end of an era(时代). 2)n. 成绩,分数;记号; get a low/high mark get full marks make a mark11. marry v.结婚 marry sb 娶/嫁给某人 marry sb. to sb 把某人嫁给某人 get/be married to sb 与某人结婚； has/have been married for 2 years. 4512. mass n. 团,块,大量 a mass of / masses of； the masses 群众 a mass of cloud 一朵云彩/ masses of clouds 朵朵云彩13. master 1）n． 主人；能手； 硕士学位 the master of one’s own future 自己未来的主人； get one’s master’s degree 2）vt. 精通,掌握,控制 master a foreign language; master her temper14. match –matches 1) 比赛;火柴;匹敌的人,对手;匹配的人/物 strike a match 划火柴 a box of matches 一盒火柴 I was no match for him at tennis. 打网球我不是他的对手 I’m his match at tennis. 打网球我跟他难分伯仲 The curtains and carpet are a good match.窗帘和地毯非常相配。 2) vt.配对,匹配;匹敌 match A with B No one can match him in maths. 区分 fit / match /suit15. material n. c/u 材料;布料 a piece of material 一块布料; reading/building materials 阅读/建筑材料16. matter 1) v. 要紧,有关系 It is the ability to do the job that matters not where you come from or what you are. The children matter more to her than anything else in the world. 2)物质 (U) Air is matter。 问题，毛病 What’s the matter with… 情况,事态（matters）to make matters worse=what’s worse / worse still 更糟糕的是 关键；关乎…的事情 It’s a matter of… It’s a matter of money. as a matter of fact17. mean adj. 小气的,刻薄的 be mean with money 花钱吝啬 be mean to sb 对某人刻薄 vt. 1) 打算,意欲 mean to do mean sb to do be meant to do/for His mother meant him to be an engineer. The chairs are meant for guests. 2) 意味着,意思是… mean (doing) sth Money means nothing for him. What do you mean by that? 你说那个是什么意思?18. meanwhile 1) adv. 同时=at the same time 2) n. in the meanwhile 同时19. measure 1) vt. 测量; 有…长/宽 He has gone to be measured for a new suit. The main bedroom measures 12m by 15m. The main bedroom measuring 12m by 15m is mine. 2) n. 尺寸;措施 make sth to one’s measure 量体裁衣; take measures to do…采取措施20. take/ have some medicine; practice medicine 行医 have a medical examination Good medicine is better in the mouth.良药苦口21.meet 1) n. 体育比赛 a sports meet 2)v. 相遇；连接；会面；迎接；满足 That’s where the river meets the sea. meet one’s needs/ demands meet with sb 与…相遇 make ends meet 收支相抵22. memory n. 记忆力 have a good /bad memory; in memory of…作为对…的纪念 46 回忆,记忆 bring back my childhood memories23.mention v ---Thank you. ---Don’t mention it. not to mention …更不用说24. ◎mercy n.怜悯，宽恕 throw oneself on one’s mercy 请求某人的宽恕 show mercy to sb/have mercy to sb 对某人怜悯 The boat is at the mercy of the wild waves. 在…掌握中；任…摆布25. merely=only adv. 仅仅，只不过26. ●mess messy 凌乱，杂乱，不整洁 1).The room was in a mess. 2).The kids made a mess in the kitchen. 3).There’s a mess of fish down there.= a lot of 4).You are messing my hair.(弄乱) 5).The divorce was painful and messy.(纠结不清)27. ●message 消息，口信，要旨，明白，理解 1). I left a message on your answering phone. 2).Jenny isn’t here at the moment. Can I take a message ? 3).What’s the message of the film? 4).When he started looking at his watch, I got the message and left. 5).He can’t get his message across.28. method n. 方法 with the method=in this way=by the means 用这种方法29. mind v./n. make up one’s mind to do … 下定决心做； change one’s mind 改变主意 Out of sight, out of mind. 眼不见，心不烦。 keep/bear…in mind=remember 记在心里 have…on one’s mind 担心，挂念 have… in mind sth. come/spring to mind 突然想起 mind doing… 介意，烦恼… Mind your steps！= watch=be careful of… 当心，注意 Mind your own business！ 别管闲事 Never mind. 没关系，无所谓 —Do you mind if I do…/Would you mind if I did…？ …你介意吗？ —Yes, but I do/you’d better not. No, of course not/not at all.30. mirror n. 镜子 look into the mirror 照镜子 Dickens’s novels are a mirror of his times. 写照31. miss v./n. 错过, 想念 She threw a plate at him and only narrowly missed. My mind wasn’t on what he was doing, so I’m afraid I missed half of it. The hotel is the only white building on the road—you can’t miss it. miss the point 不懂 miss doing…= avoid sth. unpleasant 避开（坏事） The gun fired but the bird missed being killed. be missing/gone/lost adj. 找不见的，失踪的32.mistake (mistook, mistaken) n./v. 错误，犯错 make a mistake 犯错误； mistake A for B 误将 A 当成 B by mistake 错误地 47 be mistaken （about…） 错误的（常作表语） 比较：It is not my fault. 这不是我的错。33. mix v./n. 混合 mixture n. 混合，混合物 mix up 弄错，弄乱 mixed feelings 混杂的感受 mixed doubles 混合双打34. moment n. 时刻，片刻 One moment, please. 请稍候。 at the(very) moment=now/then 现在，那时（正） for the moment/present 目前，暂时 for a moment/a few moments 一会儿 the moment=as soon as=immediately=directly 一…就…35. more，most more or less 或多或少，几乎 at (the) most 至多，不超过 what’s more=besides=in addition=moreover 此外还有，更为重要的是36. ●mourn vt/vi 哀痛；哀悼 1). He was still mourning his brother’s death. 2).Today, we mourn for those who lost their lives in the two world wars.37. must n. 必须的事 A knowledge of English is a must in international trade and meetings. N1.name n. 名字，名气 v. 命名 She first made her name as a writer of children’s books. 出名 enjoy a good name 享有盛名 by name 用名字 She asked for you by name. by the name of=named… 名叫…的 in God’s/Heaven’s name=in the name of God/Heaven 究竟，到底，看在上帝的份上 in the name of… 为… ，再…名下 be named after 取名 a boy named…/naming himself… 名叫 name him (as) captain 任命 namely =that is… 即，也就是说…2.narrow/narrowly adj./adv. 狭窄的，勉强的, v. 缩小 a narrow victory 险胜 be beaten narrowly 差点儿，以毫厘之差 She has a very narrow view of the world. 狭隘的 She escaped injury narrowly. 险些 in the narrow/broad sense 狭义/广义上3. native adj. 出生的，当地的 n. 当地人 my native language-mother tongue 母语 The tiger is native to India. 原产于 a native of London 当地人4.nearly/almost adv. 几乎，差不多 I have worked here for nearly 10 years. almost everyone 几乎所有人 not nearly=much less than=not at all=far from 远非，绝不是 There isn’t nearly enough time to get there now.5. necessary adj. 必要的，必须的 It is necessary for sb. to do… If (it is) necessary, you can call on me. It is necessary that …(should)…6. neck n. 颈，脖子 neck and neck （with…） 比赛中势均力敌，不分上下 a round-necked sweater 一件圆领毛衣7. need v./n. 需要 They badly need a change. There is no need for sb. to do/have no need to do… 没有必要做… There is no need for you to get up early tomorrow. 48 I have no need to open the letter. in need of 需要 if need be=if necessary 如果有必要/需要 There is always food in the freezer if need be. I am in need of some fresh air.8. neither pron. 两者都不 They produced two reports, neither of which contained any useful suggestions. neither…nor… 既不…也不… either…or… 或…或…9. noise n. 噪音 We had to shout above the noise of traffic. noisy adj. voice n. 嗓音 in a low/high voice 高声地/低声的; She has a good voice. sound n. 声音 Light travels much faster than sound.10.normal adj. 正常的 n. 正常 normally adv. It’s normal to feel tired after such a long trip. normal temperature above /below normal return to normal/get back to normal 恢复正常 common 常见的，共同的 a common mistake 常见错误；common sense 常识；common practice 习惯做法 ordinary 普通的(average) ordinary-looking 相貌平平的 usual 通常的 as usual 和往常一样 than usual 比往常更11. nose n. 鼻子 a running/runny nose 流鼻涕的鼻子12. nothing pron. 没有什么 for nothing=for free 免费的 have nothing to do with 与…无关 nothing but=just 仅仅，只不过 I want nothing but the best for my children. anything but 绝不 The hotel was anything but cheap. There is nothing in what he said. 不可靠，不真实 There is nothing to it.=It’s very easy. 很容易13. notice n. 注意 v. 注意到 take notice of=pay attention to 注意 Don’t take any notice of what you read in the papers. come to my notice 让我看到 put up a notice 公告，通知 The bar is closed until further notice. 另行通知 notice sb/sth. do/doing/done14. now (that) =since 既然 Now that the guests left ,we’ve got a lot of extra space. (every) now and then/again=from time to time 不时地 It is now or never. 机不可失15. nowhere adv. 无处 go/get no where/get sb. nowhere 毫无进展 The discussion got nowhere this morning. nowhere to be found/seen/in sight 不可能找到 My ticket is nowhere to be found. Nowhere in the world other than Britain can you experience four seasons in a single day. O1. object n. 物品，宾语 v. 不同意 everyday objects 日常物品 her object in life=aim 目标 object to n./doing… 反对；不同意 49 Many local people objected to building the new airport. objective adj. 客观的 2. ◎ observe v.观察，监视，观测 observe sb do sth 观察某人做某事； observe sb doing sth 观察某人在做某事 observe sth done 观察某事被做 observed Christmas Day/one’s birthday 庆祝… observe the law 遵守…3. ●obtain vt/vi 获得；得到；存在 1).obtain advice/information/permission 2).These customs no longer obtain.4. ◎ occupy v.居住；占有，占用（时，空） ；占领 The house is occupied. …有人住 The bathroom is occupied. …有人用 The dinner occupied 2 hours. Many anxieties occupied his mind. occupy oneself with sth/in doing sth 忙于某事5. ●occur vi (occurred, occurred) - happen 发生 1).When exactly did the accident occur? 2). Sth occurred to/hit/struck sb. 出现在头脑中，被想到 The idea occurred to him in a dream. 3).It occurred to me that I had left my keys in the room. It didn’t occur to her to ask for help.6. offer n./v. 主动提议 He offered 5000 dollars for the car. 出价 offer sb. sth./sth. to sb. 主动给 offer to do… 提出做 supply sb. with sth./supply sth. to sb. provide sb. with sth./provide sth. for sb. Thanks for your kind offer of help.7. office n. 办公室，办公楼 officer n. 警官，军官 office building/block 办公大楼 hold office 占据要职 in office/out of office 任职/离职 The present government took office in 1997. 开始执政8. official adj. 官方的，正式的 n. 高级官员 the official language 官方语言 an official affair 公务9. once adv. 一次 conj. 一旦 all at once=suddenly 突然 at once 立即，同时 (just) for once/just this once 仅此一次 Once bitten, twice shy. 一朝被蛇咬，十年怕井绳。 once more=once again 再一次 once upon a time 从前，很久以前 (every) once in a while 偶尔，间或10. one one by one 逐个的 one after another 一个接一个 one another 相互11. oneself of oneself 自动地 for oneself 亲自 （all） by oneself 独自 talk to oneself=think aloud 自言自语 enjoy oneself 玩得开心 I am not myself today. 身体不舒服 Help yourself to some fish. 随便吃12. only adv./adj 仅仅 I am an only child. 独生子 not only … but (also) … only to do… （意想不到的）结果... 5013. ●opening a).孔，洞，缝隙 b).开放，展开 c).空缺的职位 d). 开始，开端 e).开幕式，落成典礼 1).There are several openings in the sales department . 2).The movie has an exciting opening . 3).Have you attended the opening of the Olympic Games ? 4).We could see the stars through an opening in the roof . 5).It’s nice to see the opening of a flower . Opening hours/time(营业时间) his opening remarks (他的开场白)14. operate v. 操作，手术 operate a computer 操作电脑 operating system （计算机）操作系统 operate on a patient 给病人手术 operating table 手术台 operation n. 操作，手术 in operation 工作中 The new rules will come into operation from next week. 开始工作，生效 put sth. into operation/practice 实施15. ●oppose 1).oppose sth 他反对我出国的计划。 2).oppose doing sth 我反对改变这项法律。 3).be opposed to sth/doing sth She was/remained bitterly opposed to the idea of moving abroad. 4).200 attended, as opposed to 300 the previous year .(相对于)16. opposite adj. adv. 相反的/地，相对的/地 have the opposite opinion 持相反的观点 the opposite of heavy 反义词 There is a shop opposite our school.17. ◎optimistic a.乐观的 take an optimistic view 抱有乐观的想法 be optimistic about…18. or conj. 或者 or=or else=otherwise 否则 or so 大约 Hurry or else we will be late. either…or…或…或… whether…or/or not… 无论…还是（不）… Hurry, or you will be late.(-otherwise)19. order n. 安排，顺序 v. 命令 in/out of order 有序/有毛病 in order of time 按时间顺序 order to do/for sb. to do… 命令，指挥 order that…(should)… 命令 in order to do …/that… 为了 place an order for 订购 order a dish/a car May I take your order? 点菜20. organise/organize v. 组织 organisation n. 组织 a well-organised trip 有组织的，有系统的21. other/another/the other/others/the others other than=except (for)=besides 除了 We’re going away in June but other than that I will be here all summer. the other day/week 前几天，前几周 another day/time 改天，下次22. otherwise=or (else) Do it otherwise, please. = in another way 以另一种方式 51 or otherwise 或其他情况 We’ll get there by train or otherwise.23.out adv. 外 out of luck 不走运 out of sight 看不见 one out of four 四分之一 run out 用尽 outdoor activities 户外运动 eat outdoors 野餐24. over prep. adv. take over 接管 get over 克服 (all ) over again 重新 over and again 反复地 over=more than 超过 over dinner/a coffee 在…期间25. ◎ overcome v.战胜，克服 overcome the enemy overcome financial problems/a bad habit be overcome with (anger/sorrow) 极其/非常（生气/悲伤）26. ●overlook 不注意，没注意到，俯瞰，监督指导 1).He seems to have overlooked one important fact . 2).This is a restaurant ________the lake. 3).She has been overlooked for promotion several times.27. ●owe 1).owe sb sth =owe sth to sb 我认为你还欠我一个解释/道歉/答复。 2).他把自己的成功归功于努力的结果。_________________________________________. 3).owe it to sb that 我的成功归功于你的帮助。_______________________________________________. 4).owing to =because of28. own adj. 自己的 v. 拥有 owner n. ownership n. a car of my own/my own car 我自己的车 He did it on his own 独立地，单独地 I don’t own anything of any value. P1. ◎ pack n.包，捆；（猎犬、野兽等的）一群 a pack of cigarettes/clothes a pack of thieves v. （为运输或储存而）打包 pack sth away 收拾起来放好 pack sth (up) 将…包/捆起来 pack sth/sb into sth 使…挤进… The room was packed with people. They packed into a tiny car.2. pain n. 疼痛 pains n. 苦功，大力气 His neck is in pain. 、He has a bad pain in his left foot. pleasures and pains 苦与乐 No pains, no gains. 不劳不获。3. pale: go pale.4. ●panic n/v panicked panicking 1).There’s no panic. 2).They were in a state of panic. 3).There’s no point getting into panic about the exams . 4).I panicked when I saw smoke coming out of my house. 5).The gunfire panicked my horse .5. paper n (u) /(c) 纸；报纸；论文；试卷 a sheet /piece of paper go through the papers6. park n (c) 公园 vt. 停放（车辆 飞机等） 1) Can we park the car here? 2) a parking lot 停车场 527. part n 部分；成分；角色；零件 adj. 部分的 play/act a part in a part-time teacher vt/vi 分开；分离 1) He tried to part the two men who were fighting. (vt.) 2) They two parted at the gate.8. ●participate v 参加，参与 Participant 参与者 participation 参与 She didn’t participate in the discussion.9. ●particular adj 特殊的 particularly adv be particular about 对…..挑剔 in particular 特别 尤其 He stressed the point in particular. 1). We must pay particular attention to the point . 2).She is very particular ______her clothes .(对….挑剔) 3).He loves science fiction ______particular .(尤其) 4).The nurse asked me for my particulars .(个人资料)10. ●partly adv 部分地， 在一定程度上 1).The road is partly finished. 2).I didn’t enjoy the trip very much , partly because of the weather. 3).He was only partly responsible for the accident.11. pass vt. 传递 经过 通过 pass away 去世 pass by 经过 路过12. past adj 过去的； 前任的 a past president (前任总统) n. 过去 in the past adv. 经过 run/ walk past prep. 过 He is past sixty13. ◎patience n.容忍；耐心 have (no) patience with sb （不）能宽恕 lose one’s patience with sb; be out of patience with sb 对某人失去耐心14. patient n.病人 adj.耐心的 be patient with15. pay (paid, paid) v. 支付 n. 工资 1）pay (sb) … for sth 2) pay off 3) pay back 4) pay a visit to 5) get paid The workers get paid by the month.16. people n. (c) 人们；民族；人民 1）people of all walks of life 各界人士 2) The Chinese are a hard –working people. 3) He lived for the people and died for the people.17. percent n. 百分之….. 70 percent of the students are…18. ●perform v. 表演，履行，行动，运作 1).She performs an important role in our organization. 2).This operation has never been performed in this country. 3).A computer can perform many tasks at once . 4).The play was first performed in 1987. 5).The company has been performing poorly over the past year . performer performance 5319. ◎permission n.允许，许可，同意 ask/request/apply for permission 申请许可 get/obtain/receive permission 获得批准 with/without one’s permission （未）经某人许可20. permit (permitted, permitting) vt. 许可，允许 n. 许可证 permit sth/doing sth permit sb to do 1).Cell phones are not ______in our school. 2).We don’t permit _______(smoke) in the office. 3).I’ll come tomorrow, if weather _______. I’ll come tomorrow, weather _________. 4).She took my bike without ___________. 5). Do you have a parking ___________?(执照)21. ◎ personal a. (belonging or relating to one particular person, rather than to other people) one's personal view/opinion 个人观点 personal possessions/property/belongings 私人物品/财产/所有物 for personal use 供个人使用 take a personal interest in sth 私下对某物感兴趣 personal experience 亲身经历22. ◎ persuade v.说服，劝说 persuade sb to sth=persuade sb into doing sth persuade sb not to do sth=persuade sb out of doing 使相信 I persuaded him of the truth.=I persuaded him that it was true. I am persuaded of his innocence.=I am persuaded that he is innocent.23. ◎ physical a.身体的，物理的 physical education 体育 physical training 身体训练 a physical examination 体检 physical labor 体力劳动 the physical world 物质世界 a physical change 物理变化24. pick v. 采集，挑选 pick apples 短语：pick on sb. 找某人的茬儿 pick out 选出，辨认出 pick up 1) She soon picked up some French while she was staying in Paris. 2) My radio can pick up VOA very clearly. 3) He picked up many bad habits while in prison. 4) At the next corner, the bus stopped and picked up three more people. 5) Her health soon picked up after a few days’ rest.25. ●pin n/v pinned pinning v. n.(c) 别针 1).a diamond pin 一枚钻石胸针 2).A message had been pinned to the notice board. a note pinned to the door26. pity n. 怜悯，同情；可惜 1）have /take pity on 2) What a pity! 3) out of pity27. plan (planned, planning) vt. /n 计划 1) plan to do sth 2) plan for the future 3) make a plan for28. please v. 请；使 高兴；喜欢 愿意 pleased adj. 高兴的 满意的 pleasure n. 高兴 愉快 pleasant adj. 令人愉快的 1) The performance ________ the audience. 2) Come and stay as long as you ________. 3) We are ________ with his work. 4) There was a _______ look on his face. 54 5) a pleasant surprise29. point n, 点；分数；要点；特征；意义 1) the boiling /freezing point 2) He reached a point in his career _____ she needed to decide what to do. 3) That’s the point _____ I want to make. 4) one’s stront points and weak points 5) There is no point (in) doing sth. 这样做毫无意义。 v. 指，指向 point to /at /out ※ off the point 离题 to the point 切题30. poor (poorer, poorest) adj 贫穷的；贫瘠的；可怜的；差的 1) be poor /rich in natural resources 2) a poor fellow 3) a poor memory 4) be poor in health31. popular adj. 流行的；受欢迎的；大众的；通俗的 The book is popular with children.受某人欢迎 They sell the computers at popular prices Popular songs/science32. population n. 人口；数量 have a large /small population 人口多、少 The population of the city is increasing. Seventy percent of the population are workers. have a population of 数字… 有……人口33. ●possess vt possession 1).He was charged with possessing a shotgun without a license. 2).I’m afraid he doesn’t possess a sense of humor . 3).A terrible fear possessed her. 4).The gang was caught in _____of stolen goods. 5).On his father’s death, she came into possession of a vast fortune. take possession of Tom is in possession of the house.= The house is in the possession of Tom personal possessions 个人财产34. ◎possibility There is no possibility that she will make a full recovery. He refused to rule out the possibility of a tax increase. All prices include postage and packing.35. possible adj. possibly adv. as 形容词/副词 as possible 尽可能… Please write to me as soon as possible. if (it is )possible 如果可能 I’ll go with you if possible.36. potato n. 土豆 potatoes (tomatoes heroes)37. pour v. 倒 ；倾泻；不断流出；大量涌来 The rain is pouring down. Reports of successes keep pouring in. 捷报频传 The students poured out of / into the dinning hall.涌入/涌出38. power n. 能力， 动力， 权利，电力 beyond one’s power 超出能力范围 in power 执政 power station 发电站 come into power 上台执政 power failure 停电39. practice n. 实践；练习；惯例 55 according to the international practice 根据国际惯例 Practice makes perfect。熟能生巧40. practise v. (美 practice) 练习；实践；从事 practise doing sth practise medicine/law 行医/当律师41. ●pray v. prayer n 祷告，祈祷的内容 1).They knelt down and prayed . 2).She prayed to God for an ending to her sufferings. 3).We prayed that she would recover from her illness. 4).We are praying for good weather on Saturday. 5).My prayer is that one day he will walk again.42. ●predict v 预言，预见 1).Nobody can predict the outcome. 2).It is impossible to predict what will happen. 3).She predicted that the election result would be close.43. ●preference n 1).Many people expressed a strong preference for the original plan. 2).give (a) preference to sb/sth 给….以优惠或优待 Preference should be given to graduates of this university. 3). in preference to 而不是 She was chosen in preference to her sister.44. prepare vt. 准备，使…做准备 prepare a piece of paper for the diction 为…准备… prepare to do sth 准备干 prepare sb for sth 使某人为…做准备 be (well) prepared for sth/to do sth （表状态） make preparations for 为…做准备 in preparation for 为…做准备 (作状语) The teacher prepared the students for the exam.45. present adj. 现在的；出席的；在场的 n.礼物 v. 呈现；介绍；赠送 be present at the meeting He presented the report to the headmaster.46. ●preserve v 保持，保存，保护，维持，维护，保养，保鲜 1).He was anxious to preserve his reputation. 2).Efforts to preserve the peace have failed. 3).This is a perfectly preserved 14th-century house. 4).Is she really 60? She’s remarkably well preserved. 5).The vegetables should be preserved in the fridge. 6).The society was set up to preserve endangered species from extinction.47. ●press v/n 压，按,贴，催促 新闻界，出版社 1).The story was reported in the press and on television. 2).The press was/were not allowed to attend the trial. 3).The dictionary was published in Oxford University Press. 4).She pressed her face against the window. 5).They are pressing us to make a quick decision.48.◎pressure 压力；心理压力；紧张；承受着某事的压力 air / water pressure 56 She was unable to attend because of the pressure of the work. pressure sb into sth/doing sth Don’t let yourself be pressured into making a hasty decision. 不要勉强自己仓促做决定。 under pressure 被迫 The director is under increasing pressure to resign. The team performs well under pressure. 这个队在压力下表现良好。49. pretend v. pretend to do50. ●prevent vt 预防，阻止 1). Prevent sb/sth from doing Nothing would prevent him from speaking out against injustice. 2).Prevention is better than cure. 3).We should take some preventive action to avoid the diseases.51. price n. 价格；代价 at a high /low price at a price of two dollars per kilo at any price 不惜一切代价52. prison n. prisoner n. take sb prisoner 俘虏某人53.◎process 过程；步骤，流程；工序，工艺流程；加工，处理；冲印 mental processes 思维过程 We’re in the process of selling our house. 正在 the ageing process 老化过程 It’s a normal part of the learning process. 那是学习过程中的正常现象。 manufacturing processes 制造方法 Most of the food we buy is processed in some way. 加工过 processed cheese 加工好的奶酪 I sent three rolls of film away to be processed. 我送了三个胶卷去冲印。 It will take a week for your application to be processed .审核你的申请需要一周的时间。54.◎product 产品，制品；结果，产物 meat product The child is the product of a broken home. 这孩子是一个破裂家庭的产儿。 Production 生产，制造；产量；上映，上演，播出，制作 car production a decline / an increase in production a new production of “King Lear” He wants a career in film production.他想从事电影制作。55. ◎profit make a profit 获利 The company made a health profit on the deal. at a profit 可以获利 We should be able to sell the house at a profit. profit by / from sth 获益，得到好处；对某人有益 Farmers are profiting from the new law. Many local people believe the development will profit them.56. progress n. 进步；进展 (不可数) v. 进展；进行 make much/ great/ rapid / progress in sth 在某方面取得很大进步 57 in progress 在进行中 Work on the new road is progressing slowly.57. ●prohibit vt 禁止，阻止 prohibit sth prohibit sb from doing sth In the past, the citizens were prohibited from traveling abroad. prohibition 禁令 =ban58. promise c/n 诺言 v. 许诺；有…可能 1) make /keep/ carry out / break a promise 2) This year promises to be another good one for harvests.（有望成为） 3) a promising pianist (有前途的) 4) A heavy snow promises a good harvest.瑞雪兆丰年59. ●promote vt 促进，宣传，提升 1).policies to promote economic growth 2).The band has gone on tour to promote their new album. promotion n60. protect v.保护 protect sb/sth from (against) … We wear sunglasses in summer to protect our eyes from the sunlight. under one’s protection 在某人的保护下61. proud adj.骄傲的，自豪的，傲气的 be proud of pride n.骄傲，自豪, 自尊心 take pride in62. prove link.v 证明是(无被动) vt. 证明 1) The task proved (to be) more difficult than we’d thought. 2) He proved himself (to be) a better driver.63. provide vt. 提供 provide sth for sb /provide sb with sth Providing/provided that…64. pull v. 拉，拖，吸引 n. 拉力，引力 pull down 拆毁 pull in （火车等）进站 pull out 拔出，出站65. ●purchase v/n 购买/购买的东西 1).They purchased the car for 1 million dollars. 2).If you are not satisfied with your purchases , we’ll give you a full refund .(全额退款)66. put vt. (put, put ) put away 把 收藏起来 put aside 把… 放在一边；储存 put forward 提出 put off 推迟 put on 穿上；上演（戏剧等） put out 扑灭 put up 张贴，举起，搭起 put up with 忍受67. ◎puzzle What puzzles me is why he left the country without telling anyone. puzzle over / about sth 苦苦思索，仔细琢磨 puzzling/ puzzled Q1. quality n. 质量；品质；性格 a watch of high quality2. quantity n. 数量 a large quantity of = large quantities of+ 可数名词、不可数名词 Large quantities of water are polluted in that area. A large quantity of water is badly needed here. 583. question vt. 提问，询问，质问 n. 问题，疑问 He was questioned by the police. out of question 没问题 out of the question 不可能4. ●quit quit quit quitted quitted 1).If I don’t get more money, I’ll quit . 2).He quit the show last year because of bad health. 3).I’ve quit smoking. 4).We decided it was time to quit the city. R1. raise vt. 使升高，提高，举起，筹措，饲养，抚养 1) raise one’s hand/ voice 举起手、抬高声音 2) raise money 筹集钱 3) I was raised by my aunt on the farm.2. ●range n/v 1).We offer a full range of activities for children. 2).It’s difficult to find a house in our price range. 3).She has had a number of different jobs, _______(range)from cook to teacher.3. ◎rank 把什么分等级;等级，级别；军衔 top-ranked players 一流的选手 He was ranked second in his age group. 他在他的年龄段排名第二。 At the height of her career, she ranked second in the world. 在她事业的顶峰时期，她排名世界第二。 She was not used to mixing with people of high social rank. 她不习惯和社会地位很高的人搅合在一起。 officers of junior/ senior rank 有低级/高级军衔的军官 a painter of the first rank 一流的画家4. reach vt. 到达；伸手（脚等）够； （声音）传到 n. beyond (out of ) reach 在够不着的地方 within one’s reach 在够得着的地方 reach （one’s hand） for 伸手够… reach a conclusion 得出结论5. read v. 读，理解，写有，读数为 1) The sign on the wall reads “No Smoking”. 2) I can’t read his mind/eyes.读懂 3) The themometer reads 30 degrees. 温度计读数为 30 度。6. realise vt. 实现；意识到 realise one’s dream7. reason n. 理由，原因 v. 劝说，评理 reason sb into /out of doing 说服某人做（不做） reason with sb 和某人理论 the reason for sth The reason why……. is that…..8. receive vt 收到 receive a letter receive a good education/ a warm welcome The play was well received. 受到好评9. recognize /recognise vt. 认出，承认 recognize sb./one’s voice recognize sb/sth as (to be) 承认….是10.●recommend 推荐；劝告，建议 recommend somebody/something Can you recommend a good hotel? recommend (that)… I recommend (that) he see a lawyer. recommend somebody to do something We'd recommend you to book your flight early. recommend (somebody) doing something He recommended reading the book before seeing the movie. it is recommended that… 59 It is strongly recommended that the machines should be checked every year11. recover vt 找回；痊愈；恢复 ~ his lost bike ~ one’s health ~ from one’s illness12. reduce vt /vi 减少，缩小, 使成…状态 ~ the price by 10 percent.价格降低了 10percent。 Hunger ~d him to stealing.饥饿使他开始偷东西。13. refer (referred-referred-referring) refer to 提及；参考，查阅；涉及 ~ to a dictionary The man referred to is a famous writer.14.●.reflect 反映；映出；反射 reflect somebody/something (in something) She could see herself reflected in his eyes. reflect something This material absorbs the sound, and doesn't reflect it. His music reflects his interest in African culture reflect on/upon something 认真思考，反思 She was left to reflect on the implications of her decision. reflect that… On the way home he reflected that the interview had gone well.15. refuse vt&vi 拒绝 ~ sth/ to do16. regard vt 认为；把…看作 n 尊重；问候(常用复数) ~ sb/sth as n/adj. 认为某人、某物是…… Please give my best ~s to your family. 代我向你家人问好17.●regardless The weather was terrible but we carried on regardless.18. regret (regretted-regretted-regretting) vt&n 后悔; 抱歉；惋惜 ~ one’s mistakes ~ doing/ ~ to do to one’s ~ 让某人遗憾的是…..19. regular adj 有规则的；有规律的；经常的；定期的；固定的 regularly adv a ~ meeting 定期的会议 He visited me regularly.20.●reject reject something 拒绝接受 reject an argument/a claim/a decision/an offer/a suggestion reject somebody 不录用，拒绝接纳 I've been rejected by all the universities I applied to.21.●relate 联系；把……联系起来 relate A to B In the future, pay increases will be related to productivity. relate to something/somebody 理解 The second paragraph relates to the situation in Scotland. Many adults can't relate to children.22. relation n. 关系；亲戚 relative adj.有关的；相对的； n.亲戚 the ~ between cause and effect 因果之间的关系 A be relative to B A 与 B 有关23. ◎ relax 放松，轻松；放心，宽慰 You have been working too hard. You need to relax yourself. I’ll relax when I know you are safe.24. ◎ reliable a reliable friend Our information comes from a reliable source. 消息来源可靠 60 We are looking for someone who is reliable and hard-working.25. ◎relief a sense of relief breathe a sigh of relief 如释重负松了口气 much to one’s relief the relief of suffering 痛苦的消除 provide relief for refugees 救济难民26. ◎rely rely on These days we rely heavily on computers to organize our work. You can rely on me to keep your secret. rely on it that…27. remain vi. 剩下，留下；仍然是（无被动） Much food remained. remain adj/ adv/ n/ prep/分词/to be done Much ~s to be done. It ~s to be seen whether he will win the game. He ~s a doctor / young / standing there. The work ~s undone. remaining adj. 剩余的 the remaining time28. remember vt. 想起；记住 remember to do / doing Please ~ me to your mother.代我向你母亲问好29.◎remove He removed his hand from her shoulder. 拿开，移走 remove one’s eyes from the picture 把目光从画上移开 remove the family to 把家搬到。。 。 remove one’s shoes/ coat 脱下 remove the dirt from the door 清除，去掉 remove one’s doubt 打消某人的疑虑 remove a student from school 将一个学生开除出学校30.◎rent The house rents at/ for 5 dollars a week.31. repair vt&n. 修理 under ~ 正在修理32. reply v & n 回复，答复 ~ to a question a reply to my letter33. report v.汇报；报告；报道 n.报告，报告单 What you ~ed differs from the facts. It is ~ed that a young girl was robbed yesterday. A girl is reported to have been robbed yesterday.34.●represent 代表 represent somebody/something The President was represented at the ceremony by the Vice-President The association was formed to represent the interests of women artists.35. request vt&n 请求(比 ask 正式，比 demand 礼貌) He came at my ~. 在我的要求下 make a request 提出要求 He ~ed that his guests （should） sit down.3 6. require vt 要求；需要 requirement n 要求，条件 They ~ that I (should) appear. The floor ~s washing/to be washed. meet your ~s37. research n. 研究；v. 研究 do/ carry out some ~ on cancer38.●reserve 预留 ；预定 reserve something for somebody/something I'd like to reserve a table for three for eight o'clock. These seats are reserved for special guests 6139.●resign 辞职，辞去 resign (as something) He resigned as manager after eight years resign (from something) Two members resigned from the board in protest. resign doing something 听任，只好接受 We had to resign ourselves to making a loss on the sale.40. respect vt.尊敬; 尊重 n.尊敬; 方面 have ~ for sb=show ~ to sb in all ~s=in every ~ 在各方面41. rest n&v 休息，停止；the ~其余的，剩余的 take / have a ~ The ~ of the money was given away to the poor.42. result n.结果，成绩 vi. He was late as a ~ of the snow. 由于、因为… It snowed heavily. As a ~, he was late. 因此 The driver’s carelessness ~ed in the accident. The accident ~ed from the driver’s carelessness.43. return vi. 返回 vt. 归还，回报 n. 归来，回报 ~ to China from abroad ~ sth to sb= return sb sth I gave him an apple and he gave me a peach in ~. Many happy ~s of the day! （生日祝福语）生日快乐！44. review vt./n 回顾，复习，检查；评论 ~ one’s lessons book review 书评45. ◎reward 报酬，报答；酬金，奖赏 reward sb for sth / doing sth She was rewarded for her efforts with a cash bonus. 一笔奖金 She started singing to the baby and was rewarded with a smile. You deserve a reward for being so helpful. 你帮了这么大忙，应受到奖励。 A $100 reward has been offered for the return of the necklace.46. rich adj. 富的，丰富的，富饶的 Our country is rich in natural resources.47.●rid 摆脱 rid somebody/something of somebody/something Further measures will be taken to rid our streets of crime. rid oneself of somebody/something He wanted to rid himself of the burden of the secret get rid of somebody/something We got rid of all the old furniture.48. ride v&n 乘，骑，搭载 ~ (on) a horse/train 骑马/坐车 give sb a ~ 让某人搭车 It is two hours’ ride from here.49. right adj. 正当的；正确的；右边的 adv 正确地 n. 公正,正确；权利；右边 all right 好吧 That’s all right. 回答道歉 have the ~ to do sth 有权利干 turn to the ~=turn right 向右转, on the ~在右边 keep to the ~靠右边走50. ring vi 响；按铃； （耳朵）嗡嗡作响；打电话 n. 环；环状物；年轮 ~ the bell 按铃 ring off 挂断电话 ~ up a doctor 打电话给 ~ back 回电话 a wedding ~ 婚戒 the ~s of a tree 6251. rise vi（rose-risen）上升；上涨；起床；站起 n. 增加；加薪 The sun ~s in the east. He ~s at 6:00 every day. give sb a rise 给某人涨工资 on the ~ 在增长52. ◎risk She took many photos at the risk of her life. He took the risk of losing his life to save the child. risk one’s life There is the risk of your catching a cold. 你可能会伤风。53.●rob 抢劫；掠夺 rob somebody/something (of something) The tomb had been robbed of its treasures.54. rock n.岩石 v.摇，使摇动 The town was ~ed by an earthquake. He sat ~ing in his chair.55. roll vi/vt 滚动；卷；转动 n. 滚动；卷 The ball ~ed into the hole. The clouds are ~ing away. The moon ~s about the earth. He ~ed himself (up) in a blanket. ~ the wool into a ball Stop ~ing your eyes at me, girl. He ~ed up the window of the car.56. room n. 房屋（可数） ； 空间（不可数） takes up too much room. 占据太多的空间 make room for…为…腾地方57. rough adj. 粗糙的；崎岖的；粗鲁的；粗略的；汹涌的 ~paper/ road/words/ weather/sea58. round adj, adv, prep,v 圆的；环绕; 在…周围 a girl with a ~ face The earth moves ~ the earth. Round our mouths to pronounce the word.59. row n. 一排，一行；划船 v. 划船 a ~ of trees in a row 成一排，连续地60. rude adj(-rudely adv-rudeness n.) 粗鲁的；无礼的 be ~ to sb61. ruin v. 毁坏 n. 毁坏；废墟【多用复数】 ruin somebody/something The country was ruined by the war. The bad weather ruined our trip. That one mistake ruined his chances of getting the job. Years of fighting have left the area in ~s. 成为废墟62. rule n. 规则，规章；习惯 v. 统治，支配 follow/obey /break the ~s He makes it a ~ never to borrow money.63. run v（ran-run-running）跑；创办；管理；运转，操作；流动；掉色；变成 The college ~s summer courses for foreign students. Could you ~ the engine for a moment? The tears ran down her cheeks. The color of the clothes runs easily. We have run short of milk. run across sb/sth 偶遇 ~ after 追赶，追求 63 come running 跑过来 ~ into sb / sth 碰到, ~ out /~ out of sth 用完，耗尽 ~ over 压过去64. rush vi. 冲 ,匆忙 n. (上下班/交通)高峰期 We’ve got plenty of time; there is no need to ~. The injured were ~ed to the hospital. during the ~ hour S1. safe adj 安全的 n. 保险箱 safely 安全地 safety n. 安全 He came back safe and sound.安然无恙2. sale. n 出售，销售； 销售量/额（多用复数） for ~ 待售； on ~ 出售3. same. adj. 相同的，同样的 Don’t speak at the same time. I have the same bike as you. -Happy Christmas to you! -The same to you. -I like black tea and white coffee. –It is the same with me.4. satisfaction n. 满意 to one’s ~ 让某人满意的是 express one’s ~ with sth 对某事表示满意 satisfy vt. ~ one’s need/desire/demand 满足需要 satisfied adj. be satisfied with sth/sb 对…满意 satisfying adj.5. save vt.挽救；节省；保留；避免，省得 I am saving for a new bike. Thanks for sending that letter for me—it saved me a trip.6. say. vt. 说，写有（said-said） ~ sth to sb The sign says “ No Smoking”. 牌子上写着7. ◎schedule 1) n. 时间表，日程表 a train schedule ahead of schedule 2) v. 安排，排定 We have scheduled the meeting for Monday.8. scold vt. 责骂，训斥 ~ sb for n/ doing9. score. v. 得分，打分 n. 得分，分数；20 个 two score of books He won the game with a score of 2:1. scores of books ~ a point10. search v& n. 搜寻，搜查 search…for …. in search of sb/sth11. season. n. 季节，赛季，旺季 in ~ 旺季 out of ~ 在淡季12. seat. n. 座位 take a ~ = sit down vt. 使…就座 能坐…人 seat oneself in the chair= be seated in the chair We want to rent a bus which can seat 40 people.13. secret adj. 秘密的 n. 秘密 keep sth (a )~ from sb 把某事对某人保密 in ~秘密地14. ◎secure adj. 1）安全的 2）牢靠的，a secure job 3）无忧无虑的，a secure old age 4）有把握的 be secure of 5) security n. a sense of security 6415. see v. (saw, seen) 看见，领会，明白 ~ sb do sth ~ through 看穿，看透 ~ sb doing sth ~ sb off 送行 ~ sth done ~ to sb/sth/doing 照看，负责 You see to it that the windows are all closed.16. ●seek 寻找 寻求 seek something/somebody seek for something/somebody seek something from somebody She managed to calm him down and seek help from a neighbor seek one’s fortune 外出闯荡17. seem. v. 好像，似乎 He ~s (to be) happy/a good man. He ~s to have said it. It ~s to me that…在我看来… There ~s(ed) to be… 好像有… Aftre what ~ed several hours, he left.18.●seize 抓住 He seized her by the arm. seize a chance/ an opportunity19. sell v.(sold-sold) 卖，售出；【喻】出卖 sell sb sth =sell sth to sb He sold the book for $5. = He sold the book at the price of $5. These books sell well . be sold out 被卖光20. send v.(sent-sent) 寄，送，用无线电波发送信号；打发，派遣；使变得 ~ a message / ~ him a telegram / sent their children to school. This noise is ~ing me mad. / A telegram sent him hurrying home. ~ sb away 解雇某人 ~ for sb 派人去叫某人 ~ off 发出，寄出 ~ out 派去，打发，散发出 ~ up 发射 send sb./ sth doing21. sense n. 感官；感觉；…感；情理，道理；意义 vt. （隐约）感到，领会 a ~ of sight/touch/smell/humor/ duty /direction/language/music/business common sense There is no ~ in waiting here. What’s the ~ of doing that? The sentence doesn’t make sense. Can you make sense of the poem. She fully ~d the danger of her position.22. separate v. 分开，隔开 adj. 分开的，不相连的；单独的，独立的 Separate the good ones from the bad. The children sleep in ~ beds.23. serious adj. 严肃的，认真的，严重的 Please be ~ about your work. take sth seriously24. serve vt. 为…服务；接待；对…有用；供应，上（饭菜等） ；vi. 服务，服役；接待，招待；适用 ~ the country/the people/~ dinner/wine/the soup to the guests He has served in the army for three years. ~ as service n. 服务（行为）；服侍，招待；公共设施，业务；使用 I am at your ~.25. set vt.(set-set-setting)放，摆；指定，规定；装置，调整；使处于某种状态；使…做某事；树立， 出（题） ~ foot on… / ~ a standard / ~ a clock/watch / ~ …free / ~ an example to sb ~ about (doing) sth / ~ aside 留出，拨出 / ~ back(the clock one hour)往回拨 65 ~ off 动身，出发；燃放，使爆炸 /~ out 动身，出发/~ out to do 开始，着手 ~ up 建立，开办 The sun has ~.(vi. 落，下沉)26．settle vt. 解决，调停；整理；使平静；安放；支付，结账 vi. 安定，定居；停息，停留；稳 定下来 ~ a question / ~(down) in New York A bird ~d on the branch. Wait until the excitement has ~d down.27. shade n. 阴（影） ，阴凉处【u】； （色彩的）浓淡【c】 in the ~ of a tree / various ~s of green 各种深浅不同的绿色28. shake (shook-shaken) vt. 摇动，抖动；使发抖 vi. 震动，发抖 ~ hands with sb He was ~ing with cold.29. shame n. 羞愧（感） ，羞耻（心）【u】；[a ~] 一种耻辱，遗憾的事，可耻的人/事物 He is a ~ to his school/family. What a ~ it is to lie.30. shape n. 样子，形状，形态；体现，具体形式 in good ~ 完整无损，状态良好/ out of ~ 走形 v. （使）形成，塑造，具体化 It is ~d like a bell. / Our plan is shaping well.31. share vt. 分配；分享；分担；n. （一）份儿；份额；股份 ~ apples among the children / ~ joys and sorrows with sb I will take my ~ of the money.32. sharp adj. 锐利的；敏锐的，灵敏的；尖酸的，刻薄的；剧烈的 a ~ knife/~ eyes/ears, a ~ sense of smell, a ~ boy/~ words/a ~ pain/ a ~turn sharpen v. sharply adv.33. sheet n. 被单，床单；薄片/板，（一）片/块 put clean ~s on the beds/ a ~ of paper/water/ice34. shock vt&n（使）震惊，打击，震动，电击 I was ~ed by/at the news ./ The news was a ~ to me. He got ~ed when he touched the wire. / If you touch the wire, you’ll get a ~. He couldn’t recover from the ~ of his son’s death.35. shoe n. 鞋 a pair of/two pairs of ~s / put on (take off)one’s ~s be in one’s ~s 处于某人的位置/处境36. shoot v.(shot-shot)发射，射击，射中，投掷；拍摄 n. 射击；投篮；嫩芽 ~ a person dead / ~ sb in the head /~ the ball in / ~ a scene 拍一场戏 ~ at…向…射击37. short adj. 短的，短期的，近的；矮的；缺少的, 不足的 in a ~ time be ~ of …缺少 be ~ for…是…的缩写 in short 简言之 shorten v.38. shoulder n. 肩（膀）vt. 肩负，扛；用肩膀挤 ~ a task He looked over his ~. …回过头看 He has broad ~s. / ~ to ~39. show v. 给看，展示，显示，出示；展出；指示；引导，带领 ~ sb sth=~ sth to sb Show me how to do it. show sb around 66 ~ off 卖弄，炫耀 ~ up 露出，揭露 n. on ~40. shower n. 阵雨，淋浴 be caught in a ~ have / take a ~41. shut v(shut-shut-shutting) 关，闭，合拢 ~ one’s mouth/ eyes The door won’t ~. ~down 放下来关住；关闭，停业 ~ up 关闭，闭嘴46. sick adj. 患病的；恶心的【只作表语】 ；渴望的，向往的 homesick a ~ man, be ~/ill in bed /fall ~/ill47. side n. 边，旁边，侧面；一方，一派 Every coin has two ~s. Which ~ are you on? on all ~s=on every ~ She is excellent on all sides .48. sight n.视力，视觉；望见；视野[u]；景象[c] I have good/bad ~. catch ~ of… at first ~ lose ~ of… out of ~ at the sight of There is not a boat in ~. the beautiful ~s of Beijing49. sign n. 符号；预兆，迹象；牌子，招牌，标记；手势 v.签字，签名，示意 A dark cloud is a ~ of rain. There were ~s that they would succeed. Please ~ (your name)on the paper. The policeman ~ed them to stop.50. silence n. 寂静；沉默 silent adj. 寂静的；沉默的，无声的 keep silence/silent listen in silence51. similar adj. 类似的，相似的 similarly adv. in a ~ way be similar to52. simple adj. 简单的；朴素的；单纯的 live a ~ life=live simply He is as ~ as a child. simply adv. 简单地；朴素地；仅仅，只不过；简直，完全 She is not ~ clever, she even studies hard.53. since prep. 自从… adv.从那以后 conj. …以来; 既然 He has lived here ~ then/1949. He left the town in 1980 and I haven’t seen him (ever) ~. It is/has been 3 years ~ we parted. Since you are all here, let’s make a decision.54. single adj. 单一的，单个的，单程的；单身的，独身的；单人的 Not a ~ tree could be seen. a ~ ticket a ~ man This room has two ~ beds. n. 单打比赛 men’s/women’s ~s55. sink v. (sank-sunk)使下沉，沉没，下沉，低沉 The ship sank into the river. ~ into a chair 一屁股坐下 Hearing the news, his heart sank.56. sit vi(sat-sat-sitting) 坐，（鸟等）栖息 ~ down/ ~ at the desk / ~ at table 就席，进餐57. situation n. 位置，形势，局面，境遇，处境 the ~ of a town 位置 the international ~ I am in a very difficult situation ____ I don’t know what to do.58. size n. 大小，尺寸，号码 be of a / the same size The two houses are of a ~.=The two houses are of the same size . 6759. sky n.天空 in the sky a blue sky60.sleep 睡觉 n. I didn’t get much sleep last night. I feel better after a good night’s sleep. fall into sleep have a sound sleep v. slept/slept sleep well / deeply / soundly / badly61 slide (slid, slid) 滑行；悄悄的移动 The drawers slide in and out easily She slid out while no one was looking. slide sth. + adv. / prep. The man slid the money quickly into his pocket.62. ◎slight adj.1) 轻微的，少量 a slight fever 2）小的，微不足道的 a slight mistake 3）纤细的， 瘦的 a young girl of slight build 身材瘦小的少女 not in the slightest/ not at all 一点也不，毫不 slightly adv.略微的 轻微的 The man was slightly hurt. ---Are you worried? ---Only slightly.63. slow adj. 慢的；笨的；迟钝的 slowly adv. slowness n. Progress was slower than expected. He was the slowest student in the class. v. slow down You must slow down, or you will be ill.64. smell smelled/smelled; smelt/smelt link-v. 闻起来 Dinner smells good. What does the perfume（香水）smell like? v. 闻; 嗅; 觉察到 Can you smell something burning? He smelt danger / trouble. n. 气味;嗅觉 Dogs have a very good sense of smell.65. smile v./ n.微笑 She smiled at him and he smiled back. He smiled with relief. He is wearing a big/forced/cold smile.66. snake n. 蛇 v The road snaked away into the distance. The soldiers snaked their way through the narrow street.67. ◎social adj. 1) 社会的 ，有关社会的 social reforms 社会改革 2) 社交的，交际的 3）群居的 Man is a social animal. society n. 社会 in society68. soon adv. 马上; 很快; 不久 How soon will we be back? Please send it as soon as possible. the sooner…. the better； sooner or later； no sooner…than …69. sort n. 种类 类别 品种 There are all sorts of jobs you could do. v. 整理 把…分类 ； 处理 安排 sort (out) the letters Rubbish can be easily separated and sorted into the plastics, glass and paper. It is our problem. We will get it sorted. sort of = kind of 有点儿 He is sort of nervous.70. sound n. 声音 声响 辨析：sound/voice/noise 68 He crept(爬) into the house trying not to make a sound. Sound travels more slowly than light. v. 听起来… His voice sounded strange on the phone. It sounded like a train running under the ground. I hope I don’t sound as if / as though I am criticizing(批评) you.71. space n. 空间 空地；太空 The desk takes up too much space. Can we make space/room for an extra chair? in outer space,72. spare adj. 不用的 闲置的；备用的；空闲的 多余的 We have a spare bedroom, if you like to stay. Take some spare clothes in case you get wet. a spare key / tyre； in one’s spare time v. 尽力 破费；抽出 匀出（时间、金钱等）；饶命(spare one’s life) He spared no effort to make her happy. We can only spare one room for you. Surely you can spare me a few minutes. There is just a few minutes to spare.73. speak spoke spoken v. 说话；提起，讲述 ；发表讲话，演讲 He speaks with a strange accent(口音). speak in public / on the radio. speech n.演讲 讲话 发言；说话的能力；戏剧中的台词 give / make / deliver a speech the power of speech I seem to have lost the power of speech. She has the longest speech in the play.74. special adj. 特殊的 不寻常的；重要的，特别关注的；有专门目的的 There is something special about this place. What are your special interests? These teachers need special training. a special moment n. 特价产品；特价 The menu changes regularly and there are daily specials to choose from. specially adv. 专门地 特意地75. speed v. sped sped / speeded speeded; speed up The car sped along the road. The drug will sped her recovery. n.（运动的）速度 at a speed of…; with great /all speed; at top / full speed He reduced the speed and turned sharp left.76. spell spelt spelt / spelled spelled How do you spell your name? spell out 拼写出 Can you spell out that name? You know what I mean---I am sure I don’t need to spell it out77. spend v. spent spent spend time / money on sth./ in doing We spent the weekend in Paris.78. spirit n. 精神 心灵 the power of human spirit to overcome difficulties 69 in high / low spirits 情绪 心境79 ◎spot n. 1）点；斑点；污点，瑕疵；（太阳的）黑点 2）地点，场所 on the spot 当场，立即，在现场 v．点缀，弄脏，使有污点 The night sky is spotted with stars.80. spread v. spread spread Spread a piece of cloth on the table. 铺开 展开 She spread her arms and the children ran towards her. 张开（双臂） The disease spread quickly. 传播 流传 散布 Spread butter on the bread. 涂抹 n． prevent the spread of disease81. ◎spy n. (pl.spies) 间谍，密探，特务 a police spy a spy plane v. 从事间谍活动 spies spying spied spied spy on 暗中注视，偷偷的瞧82. stand v. stood stood Stand still while I take a photo of you. 站立 直立 The house stood empty for a long time. 位于（某处）某种状态 Modern plastics can stand very high and very low temperatures. 承受; 忍受 stand out stand by stand for n. 态度 观点 货摊 台83. starve v. （使）挨饿 饿死 starvation n. The animals were left to starve to death.84. state n. 状态，状况；州 in a good state/in good condition She was in a state of shock. the southern states of the US v． 陈述 声明；公布 The facts are stated in the report. You must arrive at the time stated.85. ◎status n.身份，地位 ，名望 raise the status of workers have a high social status86. stay v.停留；保持 持续是 ；暂留 逗留 n. 停留 逗留 作客 Stay there and don’t move. He never stays angry for long. I stayed 3 nights at my cousin’s house. stay away/ in / out / up87. ●steady 稳步的；持续的；稳固的 We are making slow but steady progress. Such fine work requires a good eye and a steady hand.88.stress n.压力；强调 Things can easily go wrong when people are under stress. She lays great stress on punctuality89. steal v. stole stolen My wallet was stolen last night.90. step n. 迈步；距离；步骤 措施；阶段 The hotel is only a short step from the beach. This is a big step up in his career. We are taking steps to prevent pollution. Mind/Watch your steps. v. 迈步 行走 she opened the door and stepped out into the sunshine.91. stick v. stuck stuck 插入；粘贴 ；卡住 陷入 n. 树枝 拐杖 70 I found a nail sticking in the tyre. He stuck a stamp on the envelope. The key was stuck in the lock. stick to /with sth get stuck in/on…92. still adv. I am still angry. / The next day was still warmer. 仍然 还是 adj. Keep still while I comb your hair. stand still 静止的 平静的 安静的93. stomach n. stomachs stomachache He kicked her in the stomach.94. stop v. stopped stopped n. 停止 终止 / 车站 stop to do / doing /sb from doing95 . store v.保存 贮存 n.商店 /贮存物 备用物 in store (for sb) We don’t know what life holds in store for us.96. strength n. 力量 力气 strengthen v. 加强 巩固 strong adj. 强壮的 He didn’t have the strength to walk further.97. strict adj. strictly adv. strictness n. be strict with sb / be strict in (about)sth / strictly speaking98. strike v. struck struck ; struck stricken The child was struck by a car. 碰撞 撞击 He struck him in the face. 打击 The area was struck by a terrible earthquake.袭击 爆发 An idea has just struck me.突然想起 The union has voted to strike for a pay increase of 6%. 罢工 Strike a match on the wall.擦划（火柴） The clock has just struck three.敲，报时 I was struck by the beauty of nature. 打动 n. 罢工 / 攻击 袭击 be on strike99.struggle v. 奋斗 努力 They struggled just to pay their bills. He struggled for breath. struggle for / against / with；100. ●submit v. 屈服; 提交, 呈递; 申辩 submit an application Please submit your reports to me before the deadline. submit oneself to a search by the guards 让士兵检查 submit to the enemy101. succeed v. success n. successful adj successfully adv. He succeeded (in) getting a place at art school. Who succeeded(继任) Kennedy as President? be a success / be successful / succeed in (doing) sth102. ◎successful adj. 成功的，有成效的，胜利的 success n. 成功，成功的人或事 succeed v.成功 succeed in doing sth103. ◎sudden. adj. 1）突然的，意外的 all of a sudden 突然，冷不防 2） 飞速的，快的 a sudden jump suddenly adv. 71104. suffer v. 受苦 受难；蒙受 遭受 Road accident victims(受害者) suffered from shock. He suffered a heart attack. The party suffered a defeat in the election. suffering n. 疼痛 痛苦 Death finally brought an end to her suffering.105.◎suggestion. n.建议 make a suggestion My suggestion is that we should give up the try. suggest v.1)建议 Mary suggested to me that we should go for a drive. He suggested doing it in a different way. 2)暗示 His face suggested that he was unhappy.106. suit v. 满足需要；适于 有利于；相配 If we met at 2 o’clock , would that suit you? The hot weather doesn’t suit me. Blue suits you. You should wear it more often. suitable adj. 合适的 适宜的 be suitable for/to sb107.supply v. 供应 供给 提供 supplied supplied supplying supply sth to sb / supply sb with sth c/n. 供应量 贮备 Supplies of food are almost exhausted. Water supply was cut off last night.108.support v. 支持 拥护；援助；赡养 供养；支撑 支护 If you raise it at the meeting , I will support you. He has 2 children to support. Support the baby’s head when you hold it. in support of109. suppose v. 认为 推断 料想；假定 假想 The prices are supposed to go up. Price will go up, I suppose. Why do you suppose he left? She had supposed him to be rich. Suppose / Supposing flights are fully booked on that day ,when could we go?110. sure adj. 确定 确信 肯定 adv. 当然 be sure of / about / that Are you sure about that? Ask me if you are not sure how to do it. be sure to do : Be sure to come. for sure: I think he will be back on time , but I can’t say for sure. make sure (of / that…) Make sure that no one knows it.111. surprise v. 使…惊奇 It surprised me that you have never sung professionally. n. 惊奇 ；意想不到的事 Her letter came as a complete surprise. She looked up in surprise. (much ) to one’s surprise surprised / surprising adj.112. ●surround vt. 围绕； 包围 The jail is surrounded by/with walls. Happiness is being surrounded by family and friends113. ◎suspect v. 猜疑，怀疑，猜想 She suspected him of taking her watch. 72 n. 嫌疑犯，可疑对象114. ◎survive v. 1）幸存 Few survived after the floods. 2）比…..活得久 She survived her husband by five years.115. ●swear (swore, sworn) v. 宣誓, 发誓 swear at sb 咒骂某人 swear to God swear to do sth swear that clause Do you swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? He swore that he was telling the truth.116. ◎swell v.(swelled, swollen/swelled) 1) (使)膨胀，（使）增长 Her arm was beginning to swell up where the bee had stung her. 2)（使）隆起 The sails swelled in the wind. 3）（使）骄傲自大， （使）情绪高涨117. ●switch n. 开关; 交换 v. 打开（或关上）开关, 改变, 转换 switch the conversation from one subject to another He is always switching jobs. switch off the TV switch on the radio T1. take took taken take A for B / back / in /action (steps, measures)2. ●talent n. 天资, 天赋; 人才 Ordinary people merely think how they shall spend their time; a man of talent tries to use it. He is a talent but he always hides his light under a bushel.3. ◎taste n. I don’t like the taste of olives(橄榄). I have lost my sense of taste. Modern art is not to everyone’s taste. v. Taste it and you will find it delicious. The dish tastes delicious.4.tear v. 撕毁 撕破；移开 扯掉 tore torn I tore the letter in half/ into halves. tear up / sth into pieces / down/ open n. 眼泪 burst into tears He left the room in tears. The story will move you to tears.5. tell v. told told 告诉 ；讲述 表述 ； 辨别 tell sb sth / tell sth to sb tell the truth/ lies I can’t tell you how happy I am. tell A from B Can you tell the differences between B.E. and A.E.?6. ●tend v. 易于; 倾向于; 照料, 看管 The sort of music I listen to varies, but it tends to/towards light music. tend to do sth、 I tend to see pictures in my mind when I am reading or listening. Women tend to live longer than men. I’d tend the store while you’re away. tend to the sick7. ●terrify vt. 使人感到恐怖 73 The creature, which is unusually large and strong, is extremely ugly, and terrifies all those who see it .（短）be terrified at 被…吓了一跳 We were terrified at the deafening explosion.8.test n.测验 考查；化验；检验 考验 take a test a test for Aids The match is a real test of character for us. v. 测验； （身体）检查；测试；考验 test your English test sb’s eyesight / hearing You should test your brakes regularly. The long climb tested our fitness and energy.9. thank n. Thanks to a lot of hard work, we succeed. How can I express my thanks to you? v. thank sb for sth / doing sth10. think v. thought thought 认为；思考 I think so ./ I don’t think so . think of / about / for yourself/ over / of…as thinking n. 思维 思想；想法 见解 I had to do some quick thinking.11.thirsty adj. 渴的；渴望 渴求 We were hungry and thirsty. He is thirsty for money / power. have a thirst for knowledge 渴求知识12. thought n. 思考，思想，念头 On second thought(s)(再一想，转念一想)，he decided to accept his invitation. deep in thought= lost in thought 沉思13. throughout prep. 遍及，贯穿 throughout the night 整夜 throughout the town 全城14.throw ( threw/ thrown) 扔，投 throw up 呕吐 throw off 匆忙脱 throw sth out 随口说出 throw at/to sb 扔给某人15. thus ad. 这样(=in this way); 因而（=so） He studied hard; thus he got high marks. He hanged himself on the tree, thus ending his life.16.tie n. 领带，关系，结，平局 v. (用绳，线) 系，拴，扎，打成平局，得分相等 (tied/tied/tying) The match ended in a tie. 比赛打成平局 Our team tied (with) their team.=Our team was tied with their team. 打成平局 Please tie the horse to the tree. 把马拴到树上17. time n. 时间，时期，次数，倍数；v. 测定时间，记录时间 all the time=always 一直 ahead of time= in advance 提前 at a time 一次 at one time 从前，一度 at times=sometimes 有时候 from time to time 不时的，时而，偶尔 in no time 立刻，马上 in time 及时，迟早 in time for sth 来得及干某事 Time is up.时间到 74 on time 准时 take one’s time 慢慢来 waste no time (in) doing 赶紧干某事 It is (high) time (that) we started.该干某事了 At no time have I said such a thing.我决没有说过这种话。（决没有，决不） It is the first time (that) I have read such a book.我第一次读这样的书18. tip n. 顶端，尖端，告诫，建议，提示，小费19. ●tire v. 使疲惫，使厌倦 tired // tiring adj. 疲惫的，厌倦的 // 令人疲惫的， 令人厌倦的 tiredness n. 疲惫 Sth tire sb out. 某事使某人疲惫 Sb be tired out 某人疲惫了 Sb be tired of n/doing 某人厌倦了某事 Sb be tired with/from n/doing 某人因某事疲惫20. ◎toast n.1)祝酒 drink a toast to…. 2)烤面包片 a piece of toast v.1)为…干杯 2）烤（面包） a toasted sandwich21. ● tolerate v. 容忍, 宽容; 经受, 忍受; Those who know how to tolerate others can naturally lead a happy life.22. the day after tomorrow 后天23. tongue n. 舌头，语言 mother tongue=native language 母语24. He is too tired to go any further. The trip is too much for the old lady. 是某人受不了的 You can’t be too careful while crossing the street. = You can’t be careful enough while crossing the street. 过马路时，越小心越好25. top n. 顶部 at the top of sth26. total n. 合计，总计；v. 合计是 adj. 总的，完全的，全然的 He is totally blind. A total of 400, 00 people were killed in the earthquake. There are 50,000 students in our school in total. (=altogether=in all 总共)27. touch v. 触动，打动，触摸，接触；n. 接触，联系 touching adj. 打动人的；touched adj. 受到触动的 stay in touch with sb=keep in touch with sb 与某人保持联系 lose touch with sb 失去联系 get in touch with sb 取得联系 be in touch with sb/ be out of touch with sb 有联系/无联系28. ●tough a. 坚硬的；结实的；棘手的，难解的 Believe me; I know how easy it is to begin smoking and how tough it is to stop. Don’t be too tough on /with him---he was only a child. He played the tough guy in the movie. a tough breed of cattle29. tour n. 观光，旅行 go on a tour to a place30. town n. 城市，小城 live in town \ live in the countryside 75 go to town\ go out of town31. track n. 轨道，田径，踪迹，跑道 keep track of sb 跟踪，跟踪了解 lose track of sb 失去联系 As to dealing with such problems, you are on the right track.方法正确32. trade n. 贸易；v. 交换 international trade 国际贸易 trade A for B 用 A 换 B33. ◎tradition n. by tradition religious/ cultural traditions traditional adj. traditionally adv34. traffic n. 交通（不可数） at the traffic lights 在交通灯那里 There are traffic jams at the corner every day.交通堵塞，堵车 There is heavy/ light traffic here.车辆多/少35.train n. 火车；v. 培训，训练 trainer 教练，训练者 trainee 受训练者 train sb for sth 为…对某人进行培训 train sb as a fireman 把某人训练成…36. translate v. 翻译，转换成另一形式 n. translation 翻译, 译文 Translate the sentence from Chinese into English.37. transportation n. 运输 The bike is a useful means of transportation.38．●trap n. 陷阱 vt. 使陷入困境 set/lay/place a trap for mice fall into/get out of a trap I trapped my coat in the car door. Having been trapped in traffic, he was late for work.39. travel n. 旅行，传播（光、声、病）traveller/ traveler 旅行者 Light travels faster than sound.40. treasure n. 金银财宝，财富，珍爱的东西；v. 珍爱，珍惜 treasure our friendship41. ●treat n. 款待；v. 对待，处理，治疗 treatment n. 治疗，处理 under treatment 在治疗中 It’s my treat. 我请客 treat sb to sth 用某物款待某人 treat sb as/ like…对待某人像42.trick n. 诡计，把戏，花招，计谋；v. 欺骗 play a trick on sb 捉弄，欺骗43. trip n.旅行，旅程 go on a trip to a place44. trouble n. 问题，烦恼，麻烦；v. 使苦恼，使麻烦 I am sorry to trouble you, but can you tell me his address? trouble sb to do 麻烦某人干 have trouble with sth./ have trouble (in) doing 干某事有困难 get into/out of trouble 陷入困境 /摆脱困境 in /out of trouble take trouble to do 尽力干45. ◎true a. 真的，忠诚的 truly adv My dream came true.= I realized my dream.46.truth n. 真理，真相，事实 tell the truth 说实话47. try n. 尝试 v. 审理，努力，尝试 try on 试穿 try out 试用 have a try 试一下 try the case 审理案件 76 try to do 努力 try doing 试着干 try one’s best to do =do one’s best to do 尽力干48. turn n. 轮流，顺序 v. 转变，旋转，变成 in turn=by turns 轮流（作状语） take turns to do=take turns at doing（作谓语） It is my turn.该我了。 turn against sb/sth 背叛 turn back 返回 turn down 调低，拒绝 turn up 开大，上涨，到来，露面 turn in 上交（=hand in） turn to 转向，变成，求助于 turn off 关掉 turn on 打开 turn over 翻过来 turn A into/to B 把 A 变成 B turn out (to be) n/adj/ adv 结果是，被证明是（强调与预料的相反） eg. He turned out to be very honest. It turned out that he was not a thief but a policeman. It turned out to a success.49.●typical a. 典型的，有代表性的 typical flower characteristics be typical of It is typical of you to be so gentle. It is typical of John to think about helping others in this way.50．●undertake (undertook, undertaken) v. 承担，从事，负责；承诺 undertake the difficult task/responsibility undertake to do He undertook to finish the job by Friday.51. ◎unfair an unfair judge be unfair on/to sb It’s ~ on him to make him pay for everything. He is ~to us, isn’t he ?52. ● unite v. 联合，团结 Carnival became a way to unite different communities. We should unite with all the forces that can be united.53. upon prep. 在… 上面 upon /on+ sth/doing 名词/动名词= as soon as 从句 Upon his arrival, I will telephone you.54. ●upset a. 心烦的，苦恼的 Then the friend went away, and the writer was extremely upset. be upset to do sth: She was upset to hear that the holiday had been cancelled. be upset that clause: Her sister was very upset that her family had to move to California. be upset about/over sth: My parents were in a huge argument, and I was really upset about it.55. ●urge vt. 鼓励，激励 urge sb to do/into doing They urged me to eat the strange food. urge that clause(should do) He urged that we should take such steps.56. use n. 利用，用途；v. 利用 make (good/ better/full) use of sth （好好/充分）利用某物 sth be in use/ out of use 某物在被使用/ 某物不被使用 sth come into use 开始被使用 It is no use doing.干某事没用 77 be/get used to n/doing 习惯干某事 be used to do 被用来干某事57. ◎useless be ~to do / be ~ doing sth He knew it was ~ to protest It’s ~ worrying about it. use n. 1) make use of … 2 )be of great use to sb / be of no use to sb 3) It is no use doing sth58. usual a. 通常的 as usual 向往常一样59. vacation n. 假期 the winter vacation 寒假 be on vacation 休假60. ●vain n. 自负的，自视过高的，徒劳的，无效的 I have tried very hard to find a solution to the problem, but in vain.(2010江苏) （短）be ～ of 对…很自负： She is in vain of her beauty.61. value n. 价值，价值观 v. 估价，重视 valuable a. 有价值的 be of value= be valuable62. variety n. 种类，种种 various a. 各种各样的 a variety of fruits= varieties of fruits= various fruits 各种各样的水果63. very a. 正好的 adv. 非常 He is the very person we are looking for. (可换成 just the)64. ◎view n. 1）看法，观点 political views in one’s view 2) 视野，视线 come into view 3) 景色，风景 a sea view / a mountain view The view from the top of the tower was spectacular. v. ~ sb /sth as… 把…视为，以…看待 viewer65. ◎violent adj ~ crime / ~ movies ~ reaction a ~ change / a ~ headache violently adv66. visit n. 参观，访问，拜访 v. 参观，访问，拜访 visitor n. 参观者 go on a visit to sth/sb pay a visit to sth/sb67. voice n. 声音，音色 in a high/low… voice 以高或低的声音 at the top of one’s voice 高声地68. ●volunteer n.&v. 志愿者,志愿 volunteer one’s car for the trip69. wait n. 等待 v. 等待， wait for sb/sth 等待 wait for sb to do 等某人干某事 wait on sb 照料，伺候 wait at/on table 招待进餐 wait for one’s chance/ turn 等机会 can’t wait to do 迫不及待地想干70. ◎wander vi ~ about / around the street71.want v. 想要，需要 The house wants painting.(The house wants to be painted) 这房子需要粉刷72. warn vt. 警告，预先通知 warn sb of / against sth 警告某人小心某物73. wash n. 洗，洗的东西; vt/ vi. 洗，冲洗 This cloth washes easily. 表性质用主动表被动74. waste n. 浪费，废物 vt. 浪费 waste time (in) doing waste time on sth It is a waste of time/ energy/ money doing sth. 7875. way n. 路；方式，方法 in this way 用这种方法 by the way 顺便说（引入话题） on the way to a place 在去某地的路上 under way 在进行中 on the way to doing 即将干某事 give way to sb/sth 让位给某人或某物 a way to lose weight=a way of losing weight 减肥的方法 You are in my way. 挡道，碍事 Please get out of my way! 别挡手，让开76. wear v. (wore , worn) 穿着，戴着，留须发，磨损 wear sb out. 使某人精疲力竭（= sb is worn out） wear a smile. 戴着微笑77. ●weekly a. 每周的 The magazine is a weekly. It is a weekly magazine. The magazine is published weekly.78. what pron. 什么 What for=why What have you come here for? So what? 那又怎么样？（表反问） What if it rains? 如果下雨怎么办？79. whole adj.整个的 on the whole 总体上80. wide adj. 宽的，广泛的 adv. 充分地； widely adv. 广泛地 The child is wide awake. 这个小孩非常清醒，没有睡意 English is widely used all over the world.81. will n. 意志，遗嘱 He gave up his job against his mother’s will. 他违背母亲的意志辞调了工作 We chose ten boys at will.随意，任意82. win v. 赢 （won/won） win the first prize / respect/fame/war/match…83. wind n. 风；v. 缠绕, 蜿蜒(wound/ wound) wind sb’s way 蜿蜒前进 feel sb’s way 摸索前进 make sb’s way（艰难地）前进 push sb’s way 挤着前进84. ●wipe v. 擦；擦净；擦干 He wiped his hands on his blue apron. wipe the glass dry They wiped away the girl’s tears. wipe out: destroy, get rid of A volcanic eruption nearly wiped out the small island of Montserrat in 1997.85. wish n. 愿望；v. 希望，祝愿 wish you + 名词（success/ good luck/ a pleasant trip）! 祝你成功！ wish for sth I wish that 从句（用虚拟语气） wish to do 希望干某事86. without prep. 没有 go without 在没有…的情况下勉强应付 I have to go without supper.87. ●witness n. 目击者, 证明, 证词 vt. 目击,作证, 证明, 表明 I thought, at a time, that this was just a story but then I witnessed it with my own eyes many times. The year 1949 witnessed the founding of the P.R.C.88. word n. 词，话，消息，诺言 have a word with=have a few words with 和某人谈谈 Word came that Tom won the first prize. 有消息传来…. You should keep your word. 你应该信守诺言。 7989. work n. 工作（不可数）；作品（可数）；v. 工作，运转，起作用 works n. 工厂（单复数均有 s） work at / on …忙于，从事 be at work 在工作 start work 开始工作 out of work 失业 work out 算出，锻炼，结果是90. world n. 世界 It’s a small world.世界真小。（哪里都有熟人） It’s not the end of the world. 并不是那么糟糕。 I am on top of the world. 我非常愉快。 learn about the outside world. 了解外面的世界91. ◎worried adj 1) be ~ about sb / sth Doctors are worried about the possible spread of the disease. 2) be worried that… I was worried that you wouldn’t come back. worrying adj ~ problems worry vt/vi ~ (sb / oneself) (about sb /sth ) There is no point in worrying about things you can’t change. I don’t want to worry you about the present situation.92. worry n. 烦恼；v. 担心， 使某人担心; Sth worry sb 某物使某人担心 Sb worry about sth 某人担心某事 Sb be worried about sth/sb 某人担心某事 a worrying situation 令人担忧的局面93. ●worthy a. 有价值的；配得上的；相称的 be worthy of sth/being done: The problem is worthy of consideration/being considered. be worthy to be done: The young man is worthy to be taught.94. ●worthwhile a. 值得做的 a worthwhile effort It is worthwhile to do sth/doing sth It isn’t worthwhile continuing with the project. I thought it worthwhile to clarify the matter.95. ●worthy a. 有价值的；配得上的；相称的 be worthy of sth/being done: The problem is worthy of consideration/being considered. be worthy to be done: The young man is worthy to be taught.96. ◎wrist seize sb by the wrist 80
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